JERUSALEM — Israeli authorities have proposed establishing a new section at the Western Wall where men and women can pray together, a groundbreaking initiative that would mark a significant victory by liberal streams of Judaism in their long quest for recognition.
The proposal is aimed at ending turmoil surrounding the Orthodox establishment's monopoly over the site, highlighted by the arrests of female worshippers who prayed while performing religious rituals the Orthodox say are reserved for men.
"One Western Wall for one Jewish people," said Natan Sharansky, chairman of the quasi-governmental Jewish Agency and mastermind of the proposal. He expressed hope that the site "will once again be a symbol of unity among the Jewish people, and not one of discord and strife."
While it still needs government approval, the proposal already risks upsetting Israel's powerful ultra-Orthodox community as well as the Western Wall's Muslim neighbors, reflecting the explosive mix of religious sensitivities in the area.
The Western Wall, a retaining wall of the biblical Temple compound, is the holiest site where Jews can pray. Currently, it is divided into men's and women's sections. Orthodox rabbis, who control Israel's religious institutions, oppose mixed prayers.
Under the plan, Israel would create a permanent area for mixed-gender and women-led prayer. It would be on a lower level where limited mixed prayer already is allowed, but which mainly serves as an archaeological site.
The area would be renovated with a platform that would place it at the same level as the rest of the Western Wall plaza and operate around the clock, like the men's and women's sections.
It also would be easily accessible from the main entrance to the plaza. Like the other sections, it would be stocked with Torah scrolls and prayer books. Currently, worshippers must bring their own prayer materials.
Rabbi Gilad Kariv, who heads Israel's Reform Jewish movement, said that the proposal could become a watershed moment for liberal Judaism.
"If the Israeli government embraces the solution, I think it's a breakthrough of relations between the Israeli government and the progressive Jewish world," Kariv said.
He said he believed "there are good chances" that Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's new Cabinet, which does not include any ultra-Orthodox parties, will support the plan.
A spokesman for Netanyahu declined comment. But in a boost for the plan, the Western Wall's Orthodox rabbi, Shmuel Rabinowitz, endorsed the new prayer section.
"I want everyone to pray according to Orthodox Jewish religious law, but I don't interfere," Rabinowitz told Army Radio. "If these things can be done at the Western Wall without hurting others, and this can bring about compromise and serenity, I don't object."
While most Israelis are secular, Judaism has a formal place in the country's affairs, and Orthodox rabbis strictly govern religious events such as weddings, divorces and burials for the Jewish population. The ultra-Orthodox, who follow their strict brand of Judaism by promoting religious studies over work, military service and other involvement in modern society, wield vast political power, although they make up only about 10 percent of the population.
The Orthodox rabbinate has fiercely resisted inroads by the progressive Reform and Conservative streams of Judaism, refusing to recognize their rulings, conversions or ceremonies as religiously valid.