MINNEAPOLIS — With a hand-held radio and gold-colored badge attached to his navy blue shirt, a security officer keeps watch over Sunday worshippers at Grace Church in Eden Prairie.
Like a growing number of churches, Grace has beefed up its security in the wake of the Sandy Hook Elementary shootings in Newtown, Conn., and several killings at houses of worship in recent years. A team of uniformed and undercover public safety officers roam the halls, security cameras are located throughout Grace's campus, and a full-time public safety manager oversees the sophisticated security system set in place to handle potential gunmen as well as other emergencies.
"It's really important people feel safe when they come to worship," said Jeff Kornoelje, pastor of administration at Grace, which has close to 5,000 attendees each weekend for worship services.
"Things are changing in the world. . We want to be wise to the circumstances out there. To know that we're prepared and proactive because the last thing we want is if something tragic happens to say, 'Oh, I wish we would have done that.' Because then it's too late."
The number of shootings at faith-based institutions is on the rise, and congregation leaders are trying to strike a tricky balance - wanting churches to be as safe as possible from violence while still being welcoming places.
At a gun rights rally at the Capitol in January, Republican state Rep. Tony Cornish pointed to Hosanna! Lutheran Church in Lakeville, which has a local police officer in place during worship services.
Mary Carroll, executive director at Hosanna, said the officer is there to handle a range of duties - from helping lost children to assisting in health emergencies - in addition to guarding against violence.
"It's kind of just being wise," said Carroll, adding that close to 5,000 people attend weekend worship services. "But also of being realistic. . Every church has to weigh what they think is the right balance of . evidencing their trust in the Lord and being wise in the ways of the world."
Carl Chinn, author of the book "Evil Invades Sanctuary," tracks shootings and other attacks on houses of worship. In 2012, he counted 75 deaths from attacks at faith-based groups. Chinn reports there were 135 "deadly force incidents" last year; and 638 since he starting tracking incidents in 1999. Guns were used in more than half the incidents.
Evangelical Protestant megachurches in particular have sought to add both armed and unarmed guards, more security cameras and other security measures, Chinn says.
Chinn, who visits churches across the country to speak about security issues, recommends houses of worship have "limited points of entry, each monitored by someone during worship and other events." More and more churches are also using security card and intercom systems to limit access.
"Being an open door to the community, being welcoming to the community does not mean making yourself vulnerable," said Chinn. "More and more churches realize there's a distinction between being welcoming and open and being vulnerable."
Gun laws vary from state to state, and churches also differ on how best to provide security. Some churches have added armed guards, while others ban guns at their worship sites. Some churches are reluctant to talk about their security - particularly the use of firearms - because they don't want to be viewed as "Fort Knox," Chinn said.