The website includes a thorough list of knowledge and skills children should know at each grade level from kindergarten to fifth grade. Families can use this abbreviated version to design activities that support development of grade-appropriate academic and character skills. If children haven't hit all of these targets by the end of the school year, summer is a great time to work on areas that need strengthening.

By the end of kindergarten, you can expect your child to:

— Take turns

— Cut along a line with scissors

— Stand quietly in a line

— Follow directions agreeably and easily

— Pay attention for 15 to 20 minutes

— Hold a crayon and pencil correctly

— Share materials such as crayons and blocks

— Know the relationship between letters and the sounds they make

— Spell his first and last name

— Retell a story that has been read aloud

— Know basic shapes such as a square, triangle, rectangle and circle

— Know her address and phone number

By the end of first grade, you can expect your child to:

— Work independently at her desk

— Listen to longer sets of directions

— Complete homework and bring it back the next day

— Be able to see things from another person's point of view so you can reason with your child and teach her empathy

— Relate experiences in greater detail and in a logical way

— Problem-solve disagreements

— Distinguish left from right

— Be able to plan ahead

— Read aloud first-grade books with accuracy and understanding

— Count change

— Tell time to the hour and half-hour

— Quickly answer addition and subtraction facts for sums up to 20

By the end of second grade, you can expect your child to:

— Begin to reason and concentrate

— Work cooperatively with a partner or small group

— Understand the difference between right and wrong

— Expand his vocabulary

— Read fluently with expression

— Begin to use a dictionary

— Add single- and multi-digit numbers with regrouping

— Know the concept of multiplication (for example, 2 x 3 is two rows of three)

By the end of third grade, you can expect your child to:

— Understand how choices affect consequences

— Build stronger friendships

— Be able to copy from a chalkboard

— Read longer stories and chapter books with expression and comprehension

— Use prefixes, suffixes, and root words and other strategies to identify unfamiliar words

— Multiply single- and multi-digit numbers

— Divide multi-digit numbers by one-digit numbers

By the end of fourth grade, you can expect your child to:

— Begin to make more decisions and engage in group decision-making

— Think independently and critically

— Show a strong sense of responsibility

— Be able to memorize and recite facts, although he may not have a deep understanding of them

— Increase the amount of detail in drawings

— Write a structured paragraph with an introductory topic sentence, three supporting details and a closing sentence that wraps up the main idea of the paragraph

— Understand cause-and-effect relationships

— Add and subtract decimals and compare decimals and fractions

— Multiply multi-digit numbers by two-digit numbers

— Divide larger multi-digit numbers by one-digit numbers

— Find the area of two-dimensional shapes

By the end of fifth grade, you can expect your child to:

— Be generally truthful and dependable

— Develop increasing independence

— Improve problem-solving skills

— Acquire more-advanced listening and responding skills

— Enjoy organizing and classifying objects and ideas

— Be able to read and concentrate for long periods of time

— Read complex text fluently and with good comprehension

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— Research a topic using a variety of sources, and use the features of a book (for example, the index, glossary and appendix) to find information

— Identify conflict, climax and resolution in a story

— Write an organized, multi-paragraph composition in sequential order with a central idea

— Use problem-solving strategies to solve real-world math problems

— Add and subtract fractions and decimals

— Identify and describe three-dimensional shapes and find their volumes and surface areas

— Use long division to divide large numbers by multi-digit numbers