A Jewish family again was refused permission to emigrate from the Soviet Union, two weeks after President Reagan canceled a meeting with them for fear of dooming their 11-year campaign to leave. Tanya Zieman, whose 12-year-old daughter had appealed to the president and Mrs. Reagan for help in leaving the country, said she received the news Tuesday evening from the Moscow City Council. She said the council told her the family's appeal was turned down by a review commission of the Supreme Soviet, the nation's nominal parliament, and that the family could reapply to emigrate after 1992.