Ford and General Motors could face $300 million in penalties because of a ruling by a sharply divided federal appeals court that upholds revised fuel economy ratings for 1980-84 model cars. The U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Washington split 5-5 along ideological lines Tuesday, leaving intact a 1986 order by a three-judge panel of the court. The earlier order followed a challenge of new Environmental Protection Agency standards by the Center for Auto Safety, a consumer activist group.