Wholesale prices soared 1 percent in February for the second consecutive month, pushed up by surging energy and food prices, the government said Friday. The identical back-to-back increases, as measured by the Labor Department's Producer Price Index, mean that inflation at the wholesale level one stop short of retail is running at 12.6 percent annual rate so far in 1989. That is more than triple the 4 percent increase for all of last year. Both large jumps had surprised analysts, who in advance had predicted moderate rises of about 0.4 percent. After January's numbers were released, economists dismissed them as an aberration. Analysts expect little energy relief in the next few months. Crude oil prices, near $20 a barrel, are at a 17-month high.