Student performance on standardized tests is often reported to parents in grade- level terms. A parent may learn, for example, that Johnny _ who is in fifth grade _ reads at the 11th-grade level.

A parent then assumes that his bright son can do 11th-grade work. But that is an erroneous assumption.

Testing expert Steven Bossert reported that Johnny's grade-level score is the score that the average 11th-grader could be expected to obtain if he took the same test. Although Johnny may be reading better than most of his peers, he isn't necessarily ready for the 11th grade.