Vice President-elect Dan Quayle announced Tuesday he has selected veteran aide Robert Guttman as his chief of staff and Time magazine writer David Beckwith as his press secretary. Guttman, 60, has worked for Quayle during his eight years as Indiana's junior senator. Beckwith, 46, was a Time correspondent from 1971 to 1978 and from 1981 until this month. For the last three years he was a White House correspondent and this year he covered Vice President George Bush's presidential campaign.