The number of women in the military has climbed to 10.3 percent of the total force, a post-World War II high, according to a Pentagon report.

At the same time, the Pentagon continues to see improvement in the educational levels of its active-duty personnel. It also posted a small increase last year in the number of civilian workers on the payroll and is paying out pensions to more than 1.5 million individuals.And by all measures, California continues to lead the nation in the number of individuals working for the Defense Department.

Those and other statistics are contained in the latest edition of an annual Pentagon study entitled "Selected Manpower Statistics." The new edition, published Thursday, consists of 222 pages of tables and covers fiscal 1987, ending Sept. 30.

The annual report offers the most comprehensive view available of Pentagon employment patterns, as well as indicators of where that force lives and how age, sex, education and family patterns are changing.

The latest edition shows that as of Sept. 30, the Pentagon had 2,160,727 men and women on active duty; another 13,490 men and women in the three military academies, and 1,174,826 civilian employees around the world, including foreign nationals.

The active-duty total was essentially static compared to fiscal 1986 - up about 5,100 - while "DoD civilian personnel increased by about 21,800" during the fiscal year, the report shows.

Both the active-duty and civilian employment figures are declining this year and will continue to fall to accommodate cuts in the fiscal 1989 budget.

In a section on active-duty trends, the report discloses that there are now 222,338 female officers and enlisted personnel and another 1,467 women in the various military academies, for a total of 223,805.

That represents 10.3 percent of the military force and is the highest level recorded since 1945 when World War II ended with 266,256 women in the military.

The report also shows that women managed to increase their presence slightly at the military academies, where new officers are trained. In fiscal 1985, females comprised 10.33 percent of the academy students. In fiscal 1986, the figure climbed to 10.63 percent and last year, to 10.9 percent.

The report says 53.35 percent of all military personnel are now married down slightly from the 54.6 percent reported in fiscal 1986 and military personnel are supporting 2.8 million dependents, also down slightly from the previous year.

On the educational side, the percentage of enlisted personnel in the military who have completed high school increased by almost a full percentage point last year from 96.5 percent to 97.2 percent.

The study also shows there are now 1.53 million "military annuitants" supported by the Pentagon. An annuitant is an individual who has either retired with a pension after a minimum 20 years of service, retired with benefits because of a disability, or is a family entitled to survivor benefits.