The Japanese government vehemently objected Friday to a trade bill passed by the U.S. House of Representatives and called on President Reagan to veto the measure or face a deteriorating world economy. "The measure would adversely affect not only U.S.-Japanese relations but also developments in the world economy," Prime Minister Noboru Takeshita's chief spokesman, Keizo Obuchi, said.

Japan, which accounted for more than one-third of the $172 billion U.S. trade deficit last year, is a foremost target of the legislation. The Japanese government, which has been painfully slow in opening its markets to American goods, views the bill as an attack on its economy and has lobbied hard to stop it.