The Estonian parliament adopted a constitutional amendment Wednesday making Estonian the state language, but it postponed action on a law that would force the republic's Russian residents to learn the language. The vote on the amendment was 204-49 with four abstentions. That was 14 more than the two-thirds required to pass a constitutional amendment. It was the widest margin of disagreement yet in the Estonian parliament, officially called the Supreme Soviet, which has only recently begun to debate issues that it once rubber-stamped.