East and West opened a new round of arms talks Thursday under the shadow of Western concern that Moscow may be circumventing a treaty that calls for deep cuts in tanks and other non-nuclear weapons.

The Western allies have said they would hold up further conventional arms negotiations if the Soviet Union fails to comply with the treaty signed last November in Paris by the 16 NATO and six Warsaw Pact countries.Closed-door talks in the Austrian capital resumed this morning and were to focus mainly on bringing about the withdrawal of tens of thousands of troops from Europe.

But German chief delegate Ruediger Hartmann, the opening speaker, told the Soviets to follow the Paris treaty or the new talks will go nowhere.

Secretary of State James A. Baker III last week suggested delaying congressional ratification of the Paris treaty because of questions about Soviet compliance.

Baker said the United States was concerned about the transfer of Soviet tanks east of the Ural Mountains, exclusion of three motorized divisions, and figures the Soviets have provided on their current number of weapons.

The second phase of the talks is aimed primarily at pulling thousands of soldiers out of Europe.