Jack Schaefer, who wrote dozens of Western novels including "Shane," has died. He was 83.

Schaefer died Thursday at St. Vincent Hospital of congestive heart failure, said longtime friend and historian Marc Simmons. The author had been in failing health recently and drove himself to the hospital Wednesday night.Schaefer had never been west of Cleveland, where he was born, when he wrote "Shane," his first novel, in the 1940s. He researched the era by reading old newspapers and diaries at Yale University.

The success of "Shane" and the 1953 movie made from it, starring Alan Ladd, enabled him to move to a small ranch near Cerrillos, about 20 miles southwest of Santa Fe, in 1954. Dozens of Western novels followed.