A federal judge known for sending lawyers scurrying to dictionaries to understand his rulings has added more obscure vocabulary to the legal record, including a reference to gladiators forced to fight blind.

On Wednesday, Judge Ferdinand Fernandez of the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals delved into antiquity to compliment the losing side in a series of lawsuits over land in Hawaii."They have been effective gladiators, and we do not by this decision convert them into andabatae," he wrote.

An andabata, according to the second unabridged edition of Webster's New International Dictionary, was a gladiator who fought blinded by a helmet.

Fernandez added to his reputation by calling a motion in the case "otiose," or futile, and saying it was "pellucid," or easy to understand, that the state was immune from the lawsuit.

Previously, Fernandez had pulled "facinorous" (atrociously wicked) and "ensorcell" (bewitch) from his bag of big words.