ANATOLY KARPOV called a timeout for the 22nd game Saturday in the world chess championship with Garry Kasparov, postponing the game in Lyon, France, until Christmas Eve. Kasparov, the reigning champion, is on the verge of retaining his title. He leads 11.5-9.5 and needs only a draw to clinch a 12-12 tie. . . . PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT troops foiled an attempt by mutinous soldiers to blow up a major air base north of Manila to signal another coup attempt against President Corazon Aquino. . . . A POWERFUL BOMB thrown onto the grounds of a Soviet military school in Latvia early Saturday broke 200 windows and damaged equipment but caused no injuries.