DEFENSE BILL - A COMPARISON
TOTAL SPENDING - President Bush proposed spending $303 billion on defense in the fiscal year that began Oct. 1. Congress adopted a spending plan that calls for $268 billion for the Pentagon.STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE - Bush requested $4.7 billion for the antimissile shield, commonly known as "Star Wars." Congress slashed the budget to $2.9 billion, a reduction of $700 million from last year's level.
B-2 STEALTH BOMBER - The administration proposed spending $4.6 billion on two planes in fiscal 1991 and parts for six planes in the next fiscal year. Congress provided $4.1 billion for the program, but did not specifically authorize the purchase of two radar-evading bombers.
LAND-BASED NUCLEAR MISSILES - Bush called for $2.2 billion for the MX missile and its plan to move the 50 missiles from fixed silos to rail cars. The administration also proposed spending $202 million on development of the Midgetman missile. Congress created a $680 million pot for the two missiles.
TROOP CUTS - The administration proposed a cut of 38,000 from the 2.1 million level of active duty forces. The bill adopts a reduction of 78,500.
CLEAN AIR BILL
SMOG - Requires a 15 percent cut in smog-causing emissions from automobiles in six years and 3 percent annually after that until federal air-quality standards are met. Cities must achieve federal air standards within five to 17 years, except the Los Angeles area, which is given 20 years. It also mandates cuts in smog-causing emissions from factories and thousands of businesses through new control equipment.
MOTOR VEHICLES - Requires reductions of 30 percent in unburned fuel and 60 percent for nitrogen oxides in automobile exhausts by 1998, cuts smoke and soot emissions by 50 percent from urban buses. Also requires new, larger canisters on automobiles to capture fuel vapors and establishes a gradual introduction of alternate-fuel vehicles for fleets, and annual production of 300,000 such vehicles for private use annually beginning in 1999 under a pilot program in California. The bill also sets up sale of cleaner gasoline blends in nine cities with worst smog problems. Compliance likely through ethanol blends or other "reformulated" gasoline. Also requires sale of gasoline with increased oxygen in cities failing carbon monoxide standards.
INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION - Requires "maximum achievable control technology" to reduce the release of 189 toxic chemicals, many of them carcinogens, by 90 percent by 2000, requires further controls to assure "an ample margin of safety" from exposure to cancer-causing industrial emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency must develop urban air pollution control programs to reduce cancer risks by 75 percent over five years.
ACID RAIN - Reduces annual sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-burning electric power plants by 10 million tons in two stages by the year 2000. Reductions in release of nitrogen oxides, also a precursor of acid rain, also are required. Also allows utilities to buy and sell "pollution credits" to reduce the cost of emission controls at dirty plants. Utilities already operating clean plants can use credits for emissions in new plants to allow for growth.
OZONE DEPLETION - Gradually forbids manufacture and import of chemicals that cause depletion of protective ozone layer high in the stratosphere and requires recycling of these chemicals after 1992.
PENALTIES - EPA may assess up to $25,000 a day in civil penalties for violators. Corporate executives who knowingly pollute and significantly endanger health may be subject to criminal prosecution.
JOBS - Allows for $250 million over five years to help workers who lose their jobs because of tougher air pollution controls and can demonstrate need.
-Offers 700,000 visas a year for three years, 1992-94, with 520,000 for family reunification, 140,000 for skilled workers and investors and 40,000 to increase immigration from countries overlooked in the past two decades such as Ireland, Italy and Poland.
-Offers 675,000 visas a year from 1995 onward, with 480,000 for families, 140,000 for employment and 55,000 for "diversity."
-Increases border enforcement, stiffens penalties for document fraud and takes other steps to crack down on illegal border-crossers. Most controversial is a three-state test of a tamper-proof driver license.
-Protects an estimated 500,000 Salvadorans from deportation for 18 months.
-Gives new guidelines to the secretaries of state and health to determine grounds for exclusion of foreigners who have different political views or carry diseases like AIDS.
-Creates a national commission to monitor immigration trends and recommends changes every three years.