A study released Thursday by a consortium of public-interest groups lists New York as the most responsible user of energy in the United States, while Texas is the worst.

The study said if the states which are most wasteful of energy merely brought their consumption rates to the national average, the country as a whole would use 12 percent less energy than it does now.Public Citizen, a consortium of five watchdog groups, said the federal government's failure to promote efficiency and develop alternative energy sources leaves those actions up to the states.

"By default, the states must take the lead in implementing sound energy policies," said Ken Bossong, director of Public Citizen's Critical Mass Energy Project.

The study calculated the individual states' per capita energy consumption and petroleum consumption, as well as the percentage of each state's consumption of renewable energy.

New York, Arizona, Vermont, California and Colorado, respectively, were listed as the most responsible users of energy.

By region, the Northeast had the lowest total energy consumption despite its long winter heating season.

Meanwhile, Texas, Wyoming, Alaska, Kansas and Louisiana were considered the most wasteful states in the union.

Texas uses far more energy and petroleum than any other state, the study said. In fact, even though it has only 42 percent of the population of California - the second most energy-consuming state - Texas used 37 percent more energy and 28 percent more petroleum.