The NCAA's drug testing program for college athletes violates the right to privacy in the California Constitution, a state appeals court ruled.

In a challenge by athletes at Stanford University, the 6th District Court of Appeal said the NCAA had failed to show that the program was necessary or effective."The evidence did not support the NCAA's claim that there is significant drug use among student-athletes, and that by testing, students' health and safety and the integrity of the competition will be protected," Justice Eugene Premo said in the 3-0 decision.

He also said the testing program was too broad and its accuracy doubtful, the appeal procedure was inadequate and the NCAA had not tried less-intrusive alternatives, such as drug education.

The ruling is the first by any appellate court in the nation against the testing program. It applies only to Stanford and, if upheld on appeal, to other schools in California.