Defense Secretary Frank C. Carlucci is expected to make an unprecedented visit to a Soviet air base near Moscow and naval facilities on the Black Sea during a trip to the Soviet Union beginning next week, a senior Pentagon official said Tuesday.

Carlucci is scheduled to leave Washington on Thursday, rest in Helsinki, Finland, arrive in Moscow on Monday, and travel to Sevastopol in the Soviet Crimea before heading for Turkey next Thursday, said the official.While in Moscow, Carlucci is expected to visit the General Staff Military Academy in Moscow, the Kubinka Air Base about 30 miles west of the Soviet capital, and a base housing the Truman division, an element of Soviet ground forces. He is expected to fly to Sevastopol on Wednesday.

The official, who spoke on condition that he not be further identified, expressed chagrin that the Soviets have not notified Carlucci of his exact itinerary.

He said Carlucci would not accept Soviet offers to negotiate arms control agreements through the defense department.

"The Soviet Union frequently tries to engage various parties in government and out of government as surrogate negotiators in the arms control area . . . . We are there in the capacity of the Defense Department. We are not there to negotiate arms control agreements . . . or to play these kind of games," said the official.

Carlucci's visit to Moscow is the latest in a series of military talks that began during the Washington summit last December. Carlucci met with his Soviet counterpart, Gen. Dmitri Yazov, in Switzlerland last March and in Moscow in June.

At the beginning of July, Soviet military Chief of Staff Marshal Sergei Akhromeyev took a tour of U.S. facilities that included a cruise aboard the aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt to watch flight operations and a look inside a B-1 bomber and Minuteman missile training facility.

In return, U.S. officials let it be known that they wanted to see the Soviet Blackjack bomber and visit Soviet ships at sea. But so far, they have not received confirmation.

"Our formal agenda has not been agreed to yet," said the official. ". . . we let Marshal Akhromeyev know in detail what was going to happen."