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In 1492: 25 facts about Christopher Columbus and his disputed holiday

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Associated Press
By October 10, the men sailing with Columbus had not landed anywhere, and had "lost all patience and complained about the length of the voyage," the logbook says. However, Columbus was able to calm the men with promises of profit and reminders that they had come too far to turn back.

On October 12, Columbus, Martin Alonzo Pinzon of the Pinta and Yincent Yanez Pinzon, captain of the Nina, stepped onto the shores of the new world.

"The admiral bore the royal standard, and the two captains each a banner of the Green Cross, which all the ships carried; this contained the initials of the names of the king and queen each side of the cross, and a crown over each letter," the journal extracts say. "They saw trees very green, many streams of water and diverse sorts of fruit. The admiral called upon the two captains and the rest of the crew who landed, as also to Rodrigo de Escovedo notary of the fleet, and Rodrigo Sanchez, of Segovia, to bear witness that he before all others took possession (as in fact he did) of that island for the king and queen his sovereigns."
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JP
Chandler, AZ

From the article: "Columbus did not believe the world was flat; rather he believed its circumference was much smaller than it actually is..."

The misconception you're trying to correct is that everyone else thought the world was flat, not that Columbus thought it was flat.

Mike Johnson
Stafford, VA

It also helped that Marco Polo's map, that Columbus had, had Asia extending 4000 miles further to the east than it does. The combination of believing a smaller earth and the Polo map led Columbus to believe that Asia was only 2500 miles to the west, instead of 12,500 miles.

DSB
Cedar Hills, UT

It's a good thing we have citations of reputable websites to confirm that Washington, District of Columbia, was named after George Washington and Christopher Columbus. I don't think any of us would likely have believed that connection without the backup sources.

one old man
Ogden, UT

But the Norse beat Columbus to America by a mile. The first known European child born in North America (in Newfoundland at a place now called LaAinse La Meadows) was a little boy named Snorri Thorfinnsson. He was born between 1004 and 1013 (uncertain) and died about 1090.

Here is a clip from Wikipedia:

There is speculation about the birthdate of Snorri Thorfinnsson. Birth years such as 1005, 1009, and 1012 have been postulated, but all agree that he was born between 1005 and 1013. According to the Vinland sagas, when Snorri was 3 years old, his family left Vinland because of hostilities with indigenous peoples (called Skrælings by the settlers, which is the Old Norse equivalent of the English term "barbarians"). The family returned to the Glaumbær farm in Seyluhreppur.

Snorri Thorfinnsson had two children; a daughter named Hallfrid, and a son named Thorgeir.

Kalindra
Salt Lake City, Utah

@ JP: Actually, very few educated people thought the world was flat by 1942 - the ancient Greeks proved the world was round 2000 years before Columbus was born.

kiddoc
Bountiful, UT

What? The earth is not flat? Whoda guessed?

Howard Beal
Provo, UT

The fact that Columbus' model for the size of the Earth being off was significant. It was one of the reasons the Portuguese were disinterested in his plan because they still preferred going around Africa, which was based on a more accurate model. However, Columbus' "discovery" put Spain in a much better position, but this would come later after Columbus' death when Cortez conquered the Aztec making the Spanish rich.

MrPlate
Lindon, UT

So what if some Scandinavians discovered America long before Columbus? What did they do to advance planetary exploration, mapping, circumnavigation, colonization, trade, etc.? Why didn't Columbus know about their discoveries?

What difference does it make if I discover a new plant, animal, or land mass, and never share my knowledge with the world? If someone finds it later and makes it known to the world, should I get credit?

Hutterite
American Fork, UT

Mr. Plate...I think it's worth recognising that the Vikings where here prior to columbus, whether he knew of it or not. The achievements of columbus notwithstanding, it is truly amazing to appreciate the achievement of the vikings to cross the north atlantic and settle what is now the northern peninsula of Newfoundland in the early middle ages. They did make a difference in their day, which was prior to the printing press and renaissance. It is true, however, that no one has a Viking day mattress sale, so that's one for Columbus.

DSB
Cedar Hills, UT

@Kalindra - that's exactly JP's point. The misconception is not that Columbus thought the world was flat. It makes no sense for the article's author to even suggest it. Nobody thinks Columbus believed that. The misconception that needs correcting is that everyone else in Columbus' day thought the world was flat.

PhoenixAZ
phoenix, AZ

People need to quit raggin' on Columbus and give the guy some credit for what he did. He's been getting a bad rap for years now. It needs to stop.

Pete1215
Lafayette, IN

That the ancient Greeks knew the world was not flat makes me wonder about my Middle School (then Junior High, 1960s) education, when we were taught that for all Columbus knew he would fall off the edge of the world. Who gave the Green Light to that lie?

nicholdraper
West Jordan, UT

Saying that the Vikings discovered America first is a complete misunderstanding of what discovery is. Discovery isn't visiting a place first, discovery is telling people about it. Since the Vikings never told the Western Europeans about America, they did not discover America for the Western Europeans. The criticism of Columbus day by people of non Western European descent is a bigoted view; essentially they are saying they wished the Western Europeans had never come here. By the way I am more a descendent of Viking blood than Western Europeans, but my ancestors came here on Western European ships, not Viking ships.

Hutterite
American Fork, UT

The article actually does address the presence of the Vikings in North America nearly 500 years prior to Columbus. The problem is this style of article, which consists of more than 25 web page loads. I wish the DN would give up this format and simply accrue the list into one article.

Br. Jones
East Coast, MD

I'm actually surprised to see such a balanced article appear in the DN. It lists both the successes of Columbus as well as his acts of cruelty and manipulation.

woolybruce
Idaho Falls, ID

For the most part, the educated understood that the world was not flat. The Greeks hundreds of years before calculated the circumference of the earth very close to what it is. Copernicus the Polish Catholic Priest in the 1500s suggested that making the earth (and the other plants) orbit the sun would simplify predicting the positions of the planets in the heavens. Before that Ptolemy's system, though earth centered still had the earth and the planets as spheres. Ptolemy's orbital mechanics had existed by that time for over 1300 years, and was used by scholars to predict the movement and position of the planets.

So in Columbus' day, many may have believed in a flat earth, but the scholars for hundreds of years understood that the earth was a sphere.

Light and Liberty
St. George/Washington, UT

Christopher Columbus, America’s discoverer, went on four voyages to the Americas, including his initial landfall in San Salvador in 1492. During that eventful voyage, ‘after weeks of sailing with no sign of land, at sea, mutiny raised its head. Finally, Columbus promised the captains of the Pinta and Nina, both of whom wanted to turn back, that if no land was sighted in forty eight hours, they would turn back. Then, he went to his cabin and, in his words, ‘prayed mightily to the Lord.’ On October 12, the very next day, they sighted land.’ According to biographer Samual Eliot Morrison, Columbus was ‘the greatest navigator of his age…The ease with which he dissipated the unknown terrors of the ocean, the skill with which he found his way out and home, again and again, led thousands of men from every western European nation into maritime adventure and exploration…The whole history of the Americas stems from the Four voyages of Columbus [and] a score of independent nations and dominions unite in homage to Christopher the stout-hearted son of Genoa, who carried Christian civilization across the sea.’ Amen!

Jared
NotInMiami, FL

@ Pete1215 "Who gave the Green Light to that lie?"

There's a book called "Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians" that addresses that. Searching online for "myth of the flat earth" yields some good info (namely on Wikipedia) if you want a summary.

BalancedFulfilledLife
MISSOURI CITY, TX

@Light and Liberty I love the quote you shared. Is it from the recent book sold by Deseret Book about Colombus? I would love to share the quote with others if I have the source.

Aurelius maximus
Berryville, VA

Detractors like to detract.
Complainers like to complain.
Haters like to hate.

Thinkers like to think.
Learners like to learn.

I would put myself in one of the latter qualities. Detractors that like to discredit historical figures often like by putting focus on one aspect of a person. Instead of trying to take in all the evidence or context and stepping into their shoes.

Even then it is hard because a lot of civilization at least in 1st world countries have often become so far removed from that world that it has become almost like a distant planet that you see through a high powered telescope.

CHinckley
Salt Lake City, UT

#7 The idea that Columbus was not honest because he gave different figures to his crew is probably incorrect. We do not have Columbus's original log for the First Voyage, but a redaction made by Bartolome de Las Casas. Las Casas assumed from the two figures that Columbus was giving his crew data that Columbus was trying to downplay the distance they had travelled. However, recent scholars have suggested that it is much more likely that Columbus used Latin leagues for his own figures, but gave the crew the distances in Portuguese leagues, which were longer and with which the crew would have been more familiar. The difference in figures in the log is always exactly the same, and it is the difference between Latin and Portuguese leagues.

#12 Columbus actually restrained his men from retaliating against the natives for the massacre of the 39 men left at Navidad. Fray Buil was the most vocal, insisting that they must revenge the death of the crew by attacking the natives.

#16 states that Columbus "attempted to visit [Hispaniola] despite being told not to." Actually, Columbus anchored outside the harbor of Santo Domingo and asked for permission to enter the harbor as he sensed the approach of a Hurricane. The governor denied his request.

CHinckley
Salt Lake City, UT

@Light and Liberty: There is actually no entry in the log of the First Voyage that Columbus "prayed mightily to the Lord" on October 11th (or any other nearby day). This quote is found frequently in published works, but it does not appear in the Diario (the log). The best transcript and translation of the log is "The Diario of Christopher Columbus's First Voyage to America, 1492-1493" by Oliver Dunn and James E. Kelley, Jr. (University of Oklahoma Press, 1989 and 1991).

There are ample other examples of Columbus's deep faith and spirituality, and his unwavering conviction that God was leading him to do what he did. But this particular "quote" is not one of them. He viewed his voyage as nothing less than the miraculous fulfillment of prophecy and claimed God "showed me where to go." (Letter to Dona Juana, Textos y Documentos Completos, Varela and Gil, Alianza Editorial, 1992)

BYU Track Star
Los Angeles, CA

@nicholdraper,
I like your definition of "Discovery". By your definition. The Chinese Imperial Fleet probably "Discovered" America and reported the findings back to the Chinese Imperial Court in the early 1400s. Unfortunately by the time the Fleet returned from its voyages to report its findings, the powers that be at the Imperial Court concluded there wasn't really anybody, outside of India, worth trading with by sea. So the grand fleet was left at its mooring to rot. How history would have differed if the Chinese fleet had of gone all the way up the coast of West Africa to Lisbon, Portugal, instead of the Caribbean.

Craig Clark
Boulder, CO

We all know today that Columbus didn’t prove the world was round, was not the first to discover America, but was a very controversial and tyrannical figure who made enemies. The reason Columbus still looms so large as a historic figure is because his voyages brought to the nations of Europe awareness of lands ripe for European exploration and exploitation. The impact that had on both the Eastern and Western hemispheres was so enormous it changed the course of history.

AerilusMaximus
Berryville, VA

@ Craig Clark

"was a very controversial and tyrannical figure who made enemies"

Really? I would love to read this so called history that dictates these things. I don't believe Columbus was a saint but I don't think he was a tyrannical figure either.

LOU Montana
Pueblo, CO

I would gladly vote to eliminate Columbus Day. One less holiday for banks and post office to be shut down.

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