Chiseled abs. Bulging biceps. Perfect pecs.
Hollywood and TV’s leading male action stars — such as Hugh Jackman, who plays Wolverine in “X-Men,” and Stephen Amell, known to “Arrow” fans as Oliver Queen — possess all these physical characteristics and more.
These images of men with perfect physiques, which have become more prevalent in movies, TV shows and advertisements in recent years, can negatively impact males’ body image, according to Dr. Will Courtenay, a men’s psychologist, researcher and author focusing on men’s issues.
They can also contribute to the perception of boys and men that their bodies are never satisfactory, said Bonnie Brennan, a certified eating disorder specialist and clinical director of the Adult Partial Hospitalization Program for the Eating Recovery Center based in Denver, Colorado.
“The male body in the media has an impact on how males, especially developing males, perceive their own bodies,” said Brennan. “Males are being exposed to the same extreme ideals of body perfection as females.”
Body image dissatisfaction
People have long been aware of the scrutiny females face about their appearance, but males are also pressured to obtain the ideal body.
A study published in JAMA Pediatrics in January shows concerns about physique (and muscularity in particular) among young males are “relatively common.” The researchers said approximately 18 percent of participants in their study (which included 5,527 males) were “extremely concerned for their weight and physique.” Furthermore, the researchers found 7.6 percent of young males were “very concerned about muscularity” and were using techniques that could be harmful to obtain an ideal body.
Other research indicates males also take extreme measures to lose weight. Although past research estimated only 10 percent of people suffering from an eating disorder (like anorexia nervosa and bulimia) were male, more recent studies show males may account for 25 percent of eating disorders, according to a 2013 Canadian Medical Association Journal report.
And the media is partially to blame, according to Dr. Courtenay.
“Over the last 25 years, research shows that men have been increasingly bombarded by images of perfect male bodies in movies and television. This changes men’s perceptions about their bodies. Men are feeling increasingly inadequate physically,” said Dr. Courtenay.
But Brian Cuban, author of “Shattered Image,” a book which details his struggle and recovery from eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder and drug addition, said it’s important to remember the media is not the primary factor leading to body issues and dangerous body-reshaping practices.
“I think what the explosion of media images has done in the digital age is lower our normal societal discontent. ... It is much easier for us as a society to look in the mirror and compare ourselves,” Cuban said.
He explained many other factors, including genetics and environment, play a role in body dissatisfaction. “(The media has) lowered the trigger level for people who are predisposed to those issues,” he said.
Changing body ideals
Brennan noted Americans are now inundated with images of males that are “increasingly hairless displaying six-pack abs, bulging biceps and no fat on their bodies,” along with images of “the rock-star-thin male, whose clothes hang off his body from his shoulders, perhaps capturing an image of eternal adolescence.”
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