The dorm Hamilton lived in was a "party dorm," one of many on campus, and a feeder for those aspiring to join Greek sororities. The dorm was part of a party scene that seemed to go on all week and sapped the energy and focus of those who tried to balance the social scene with actual school work.
The pervasiveness of the party scene, the researchers concluded, is partly a result of the demographic targeted by the university: wealthy, out-of-state students willing to pay full tuition. Since all schools are scraping for money, they need to be competitive somehow. They will never get the students that go to an MIT or a UC Berkeley, so they appeal on other grounds.
This is reflected partly by money invested in gardens and waterfalls, recreation centers and climbing walls, rather than teaching and counseling, Hamilton said. She also cites the practice of "student aid leveraging," in which the school targets small scholarships to entice lucrative-paying out-of-state students rather than offering full or half tuition to less-privileged but less-lucrative in-state students.
A toxic mix
Students who like to party like soft majors, Hamilton said, but the less savvy students didn't realize that a soft major combined with a poor GPA is a dangerous mix. She singled out interior design, fashion merchandising, sport broadcasting (very popular) and a major called "tourism, hospitality and event planning" for special opprobrium.
All things considered, a college degree does have a huge payoff, Armstrong said, "but people don't take into account that an engineering degree from MIT with a 3.8 is not the same as a communications degree from Ball State with a 2.7 GPA."
"For privileged students, those majors are not a problem." Hamilton said. "Their dad will call other CEOs around the country and get them a job. Parents will put them up in NYC for a year until they find a job. But if you don't have those kinds of family resources, pretty soon you find out that to be a wedding planner you don't need a college degree, but you do need connections and that you have the sort of social capital and aesthetic sense that clients expect."
"These schools lure in lots of kids who are not that interested in college and offer lots of weak majors that appeal to these kids," said George Leef, a fellow at the North Carolina-based Pope Center for Higher Education Policy. "But then what? Lots of them end up working at Starbucks or Enterprise Rent a Car." He notes that Enterprise prides itself on hiring college graduates to do something that a well-trained high school graduate could do, and doesn't pay them much better, providing a ready if dispiriting outlet for graduates in soft majors and low GPAs.
A new start
Many of the women sucked into the party pathway ended up with weak majors and/or bad GPAs, and without parental connections often ended up in low-paying undesirable jobs. One who took biology, a serious major, finished with a 3.0 GPA and was surprised to learn that this ruled out dental school. She ended up taking a job as a dental assistant.
More successful, oddly, were the women who left the flagship university for far less prestigious regional campuses that turned out to be free from the distractions of partying and social hierarchy, where they were able to shift to practical majors like teaching or nursing that produced real jobs straight out of college.
"We assumed that they were washed out," Armstrong said. "But as we kept talking to them we realized most had transferred to four-year branch campuses and kind of got back on track." It took longer for these transfers to graduate, but they had less debt and better employability than those of similar profiles who stayed.
"That led us to wonder what was going on in the flagship," Armstrong added, "that they performed so much better after they left. This led us to think about issues of fit. Were low-income students moving into a flagship university in a party dorm surrounded by affluent women with very poor advising set up to fail?"
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