Mike Terry, Deseret News
SALT LAKE CITY — A terminal colon cancer diagnosis for Dov Siporin not only left him fighting for his life, but it forever changed the lives of anyone in his genetic line.
"My children are definitely at high risk for it now," the 39-year-old victim of colon cancer said Wednesday. Unconventionally, Siporin's two kids, now ages 6 and 9, will undergo colorectal cancer screening at age 23, as their father was diagnosed at age 33.
Siporin's brothers are also encouraged to be more vigilant about getting routine colonoscopies, which screen for cancer of the colon.
"Regardless of a patient's age, if polyps or adenomas are found, their relatives are at a higher risk for developing polyps or colon cancer," said Dr. Jewel Samadder, a researcher at the Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah. Samadder is the author of a study that further quantifies the increased risk to first-degree relatives (parents, siblings and children) of patients found to have the precancerous lesions in their colons.
Investigators integrated numbers collected as part of the Utah Population Database, Utah Cancer Registry and genealogical records from The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to determine the role of hereditary risk factors.
In the largest population-based study to date, researchers made their findings based on 126,936 people screened at Huntsman Cancer Institute and Intermountain Healthcare facilities between 1995 and 2009.
What they found was that up to 10 percent of colorectal cancers could be missed when current national screening guidelines are followed.
"We expected to see increased risk in first-degree relatives, but we weren't sure the risk would also be higher for more distant relatives in multiple generations," Samadder said. "The biggest surprise was the percentage of missed cancers under the current guidelines. We figured there would be a few percent, but 10 percent is a large number."
For the general population, current screening guidelines, set forth by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, recommend colonoscopy screening every 10 years, starting at age 50. For first-degree relatives of people diagnosed with colorectal cancer or advanced adenomas (precancer) before age 60, increased screening is recommended — colonoscopies every five years, starting at age 40.
The screening recommendations for more distant relatives of people diagnosed before age 60 and for all relatives of people diagnosed at or after age 60 are the same as for the general public.
The Huntsman Cancer Institute study, published online in the recent edition of "Early View" in the journal Cancer, supports those guidelines but also raises the issue of whether more aggressive screening should be considered, Sammader said.
He said people might be falling through the cracks when any familial risk for cancer is ignored.
While the study substantiated an increased risk for first-degree relatives, it also detected smaller percentages of elevated risk in more distant second- (aunts, uncles and grandparents) and third-degree relatives (cousins, nieces and nephews, great-grandparents).
More than 40,340 Americans will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer this year, and about 50,830 will die from the disease, which is the third most common cancer in the country for men and for women, according to the American Cancer Society.
Thanks to standards of care and colorectal cancer screenings, polyps can be found and removed before they turn into cancer. And colorectal cancer can be found earlier when it is easier to cure, as Sammader said there is an 80 percent survival rate for patients who receive an early diagnoses.
There is a less than 30 percent survival rate when cancer is caught in its later stages, perhaps having spread to other organs or lymph nodes, he said.
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