Congregations with more men than women are more likely to attract young adults. Also, congregations where most of the members are from ethnic minority groups report a significant number of young adult participants.
Congregations in newer suburbs or urban areas have higher participation among young adults than those in small towns or rural regions.
Congregations with either rapid growth or rapid decline of more than 10 percent in the past decade have a significantly higher proportion of young adult participants than those that experienced stable or flat growth.
Congregations organized in the past decade are more than three times as likely to have a significant number of young adults as those organized before 1976.
To take a deeper look at faith communities successfully engaging their youth and young adults, researchers conducted 10 case studies. One of the congregations examined was the New Life Covenant Church in Chicago, a nondenominational church affiliated with the Assemblies of God.
Among the factors that attract black youths and young adults to New Life are the engaging Sunday services with overhead lights dimmed, strobe lights flashing and the band playing a mix of gospel, Christian rock and hip-hop as members dance and sing along.
On the day the researcher visited, founding Pastor John F. Hannah's dynamic sermon was a mixture of humor and honesty illustrated with visual aids. While Sunday services are the main draw for youths, the church also offers a variety of programs for those in the early teenage years to young adults to keep them involved and connected to the church and each other.
Researchers also observed an LDS young single adult ward in the suburb of Herriman, Utah, where, instead of a rock band, worshippers sing hymns accompanied by an organ.
The main draw to this place of worship is that the more than 300 members are entirely young adults, ages 18 to 30, with the exception of the bishop and his two counselors. Participants forge strong relationships with their leaders and peers through service in the ward and a myriad of activities outside of Sunday worship services.
"This religious group ministers to congregants in temporal and spiritual ways and provides a community of friends and mentors to support young adults in the many challenges inherent in this stage of life," one researcher wrote.
At a Southern Baptist church in Ooltewah, Tenn., some of the young adult members wear T-shirts inscribed with the motto “Changing the way you think about church." It's a come-as-you-are atmosphere at the church, which is a converted warehouse that accommodates sitting areas, two bistros, a cafe, a theater, a prayer room and a worship center.
"Ministry functions, not the gospel, have adapted to changing times," a researcher wrote. "This is evident in the pastors’ reference to Facebook or Twitter, the importance of having a media specialist on staff which enables an always-up-to-date website, and use of current technologies which include ... podcasts, the use of the “You Version” Bible app for pastor’s notes, and video archives if a message is missed."
Sahlin said the next survey, which will be out in 2015, will look at why more than 80 percent of congregations can't even reach a 20 percent threshold of young adult participation.
He said some surveys of young adults have been done that could give some clues. An oft-cited study by the Pew Research Center, which found that one-third of Americans under 30 aren't affiliated with a religion, cited research showing the entanglement of religion and politics, delayed marriage and disengagement with the community as contributing to young adults pushing away from religion.
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