Income disparity limits access to technology at school
Teachers across the nation say they are increasingly relying on digital technologies like laptops, tablets and cellphones in middle and high school classrooms, but they note a "striking" disparity in access to the latest technology between affluent and disadvantaged schools, according to a new survey conducted by Kristen Purcell from the Pew Research Center’s Internet and American Life Project.
Ninety two percent of the 2,462 teachers surveyed say the internet has a major impact on their ability to access content, resources and material for their teaching. Laptops, tablets and cellphones are used by students and teachers to look up information, take pictures for assignments and for text messaging in class as part of an assignment.
"Digital technologies have become essentail instructional tools for the vast majority of teachers in this study," notes Purcell, associate director of research at the Pew Internet Project. "Yet, not all teachers feel they and their students have the access they need to these tools or the resources to use them effectively."
In fact, Purcell found that 84 percent of teachers believe that digital technology leads to greater disparity between have and have-not schools and districts. To illustrate the divide, consider Purcell's finding that 56 percent of teachers at low income schools say they do not have sufficient resources to effectively incorporate digital technology into their classrooms. Only 21 percent of teachers at upper middle income schools have this issue. Not surprisingly, Purcell found great disparity in access to technology at home as well.
Computers at school
This disparity is illustrated in a comparison of two public middle schools in the greater Salt Lake City area. Ecker Hill Middle School, a school in the Park City School District, recently implemented a one device per child policy. Each of the 726 students receives an Apple laptop at the beginning of the school year. “It’s their computer,” for the school year, said Park City School District Technology Instructional Coach Sam Thompson. “They can take it home at night and on the weekends.”
Students use the devices to do math homework on a program called Digits, an online research database for history and can communicate with their teachers about assignments and expectations via another program called Canvas, which operates like a digital blackboard. While the students don’t have administrative access, and their internet is filtered, the school doesn’t actively track what they do online and encourages them to use the devices for recreational activities as well.
Now consider the situation down the mountain and across the valley at West Lake Junior High School, part of the Granite School District. Principal Isiah “Ike” Spencer estimates there are about 340 computers for the school’s 1,200 students. That’s nearly four students for each computer. Spencer says if he includes tablets and e-readers in the calculation, the ratio is closer to two or three children per device.
The device disparity between the two schools is explained by the tax base on which they draw. Ecker Hill serves students in Summit County, where the average household income in 2011 was $72,643, one of the wealthiest in the nation according to the United States Bureau of Economic Analysis. West Lake Junior, by contrast, serves students from the Salt Lake School District where the average household income in 2011 was just $39,081.
Computers at home
Access to devices at home is also a problem. While 52 percent of teachers at affluent schools say their students have access to technology at home, only 3 percent of teachers at low income schools said their students had access to devices at home, according to Pew Research Center data.