A land mine that can be produced for as little as $3 is much more costly to remove. For example, the bulldozers used to clear Bagram Air Field, the largest American military base in Afghanistan, cost $500,000 each. Afghan de-miners are paid $200 to $300 per month but require expensive protective clothing and high-tech metal detectors to do their work. The per mine cost of removal runs as high as $1,000, according to some expert estimates.
What this means is that no matter what country de-miners are working in, whether it is Afghanistan or Angola, decisions have to be made about which areas are high priority and which areas can wait. The metric for making these decisions is complicated, but according to Mohammed Oriakhill, a planning officer with the Mine Action Coordination Center of Afghanistan in Kabul, urban areas tend to have priority and poor rural communities have to wait.
To lessen the burdens of waiting for de-miners, researchers and designers are trying to come up with cheaper, faster, more effective ways of clearing mine fields. Massoud Hassani is among these innovators.
In 1998, Hassani’s family left Afghanistan for the Netherlands when his father was killed, caught in the crossfire of a shootout between rebel groups. After finishing high school, he enrolled at a prestigious art and design academy.
Contemplating what to do for his graduation project, his mind kept returning to the toys of his childhood. His favorite had been a circular rolling toy made of paper. He recalls racing them with his friends across the dry dusty landscape, the Aghan version of a Pinewood Derby. “We’d try to make them so the wind would catch them just right and carry them the furthest across the desert,” he said.
However Hassani didn’t just want to make toys for his project, he wanted something useful. He recalls sarcastically asking his adviser, “What am I going to do, make a giant toy that explodes land mines?” His professor’s eyes lit up. “It’s perfect,” he responded.
Hassani set to work building a model for the mine-clearing toy he calls “Mine Kafon.” (Kafon means "exploder" in his native Dari.) Just like the toys of his childhood, Mine Kafon is circular, built from cheap materials and powered by the wind. The total cost of one is about $60.
Mine Kafon is about the height of a man. It has a solid core with many spokes made from bamboo poles. At the end of each pole is a disc. These discs catch the wind and propel the rolling object across the ground. “If it hits a land mine, there will be an explosion because (it) is about as heavy as a person and it mimics the feet of a human being,” he said. Each Mine Kafon can withstand blasts from up to four land mines before it is no longer functional. Hassani has started attaching GPS tracking devices to each Mine Kafon, which allows its location and path to be tracked in real time on the Internet.
Too random to work?
While experts in land-mine removal applaud Hasani's creative design, some suggest relying on a device powered by the wind is not a sufficiently systematic way to clear an area. “When you are clearing out an area for humanitarian purposes, you can’t miss anything. The area has to be cleared to the highest possible standard,” said one expert who asked to remain anonymous. “I wouldn’t send my kids out to play on a field where (Mine Kafon) has been used to clear the area,” he added.
Hassani acknowledges that his design isn’t perfect. Engineers from the Dutch Department of Defense agreed to collaborate with him on design improvements and to create prototypes for field testing if he can raise $60,000. To meet this goal, Hassani launched a kickstarter campaign and created a short documentary to explain his goals to the public. So far he has raised more than $100,000.
He’s hopeful that his design will be useful in remote poor areas that are considered low priority for mine clearance. “Mine Kafon is for villages where they are poor and that are of no strategic importance,” he said. “It may prove useful to the people who would otherwise have to wait decades for their farmlands to be cleared.”
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