Both political parties, particularly Republicans, and organized religion risk driving away today's young adults.
"Beyond that, all sides — progressive and conservative, religious and secular — should be concerned that placing a partisan label on religion has hurt the ability of religious leaders to summon moral arguments on behalf of causes that transcend left and right," Campbell and Putnum wrote.
So when religious leaders feel compelled to address moral and social issues, such as abortion or same-sex marriage, can they do it without driving away congregants?
"They need to avoid giving the impression that following Jesus implies one will either become a Republican or Democrat," said Merritt, a Southern Baptist whose father was head of the Southern Baptist Convention from 2000-02.
He explains that there are many politically charged issues affecting society that should be "fertile ground" for a spiritual discussion on the Sabbath. Where things go awry is when the pastor veers away from scriptural-based principals and into partisan policy.
"Same-sex marriage was not imagined by New Testament writers, but clearly there are principles in scripture that apply directly to this debate. The problem is when we stop teaching principles and begin teaching public policy," Merritt said. "The church has been at its worst when endorsing and propelling politicians and their individual policy and strongest when it is empowering its people with a moral framework to engage in public policy in an informed and spirit guided way."
The Catholic Church has been flexing its muscle in American politics this election season. More than two-dozen Catholic organizations have sued the government over health care mandates that they claim are contradictory to its doctrine against contraception and thereby violate its religious freedom. The nation's bishops tried to rally the faithful to the church's cause in Fortnight of Freedom events last month.
The Internet has been full of news accounts, blogs and columns taking sides on the appropriateness of the Catholic Church taking a political stand. And while time will tell if the church's public stance against Obamacare will drive congregants away, local diocese government liaisons like Jean Hill in Salt Lake City are holding seminars informing parishioners about the church's longstanding faithful citizenship document that encourages members to be well-informed and involved voters.
"That’s been a huge challenge because there are issues that are divisive that people tend to stay away from to avoid upsetting people," Hill said. "But religion isn’t about just feeling good and have everything be what you want it to be. It is hard and you have to stand for something and that’s never easy."
She said she faces two challenges in her training seminars:
1) Helping Catholics understand that the church's positions on abortion, climate change, contraception and other issues are not based on party politics but are deeply held beliefs based on church tradition and an understanding of scripture.
2) Encouraging congregants to become well-informed so they can confidently vote their conscience.
"My approach is to remind people we don’t get to make easy choices in the voting booth," Hill said. "Each individual has to go in there having thought through these issues and decide for themselves who is the candidate who represents their beliefs."
The pending Republican presidential nomination of Mitt Romney has prompted his church — The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints — to reiterate its policy of political neutrality. But the LDS Church will weigh in on local and national issues that it believes have moral consequences or affect its interests, such as liquor regulation, gambling or same-sex marriage.
Every election year, LDS leaders encourage members to participate in the political process. And with a lay clergy and an open exchange of opinions during class instruction, political partisanship can easily surface among Mormons meeting every Sunday. But leaders stress respect for differing opinions.
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