United Media Office of Arbeen, File, Associated Press
BEIRUT — The year since a chemical attack that killed hundreds near Damascus has been a strikingly good one for President Bashar Assad.
His deadly stockpile has been destroyed, but he has stayed in power, bought time and gotten world powers to engage him. Along the way, global disapproval has shifted away from Assad and toward the Islamic extremists who are fighting him and spreading destruction across Syria and Iraq.
In Syria, frustrated opposition leaders plan modest rallies Friday to commemorate an attack that they believe the world has largely forgotten.
For many Syrians, hopes for justice are fading and a deep sense of bitterness prevails. The U.S., which threatened to strike Assad's forces but backed away at the last minute, is now bombing the Islamic State group in neighboring Iraq.
Calls for Assad's ouster are no longer made publicly by Western officials.
"This is one anniversary that all free Syrians would love to forget. It was the beginning of the end of U.S. and international involvement in the Syrian conflict," said Bilal Saab, a senior fellow for Middle East Security at the Atlantic Council's Brent Scowcroft Center on International Security.
The U.S. reversal capped what many Syrians had long seen as a flippant approach in the West to the uprising.
"There has been an intention, from the beginning, to bury the Syrian revolution," said Hassan Taqieddine of eastern Ghouta, the Damascus suburb struck a year ago by an early morning barrage of rockets carrying chemical agents.
Taqieddine, who was among activists who rushed to evacuate and help casualties from the attack, said he is still haunted by images of the dead.
"And here we are, a year later, still getting bombed with barrel bombs, warplanes and chlorine, and no one cares," he said, speaking via Skype from Douma.
The Aug. 21, 2013, attack is almost certainly the single deadliest event in Syria's civil war — a conflict that has killed more than 170,000 people since it began in March 2011. Online video of the attack's aftermath showed scores of panicked victims twitching and suffocating in chaotic makeshift hospitals — shocking images that provoked international condemnation.
U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called it the "worst use of weapons of mass destruction in the 21st century."
Following the chemical assault, U.N. inspectors conducted a swift investigation that determined rockets loaded with sarin had been fired from an area where the Syrian military has bases. But the U.N. probe's limited mandate did not authorize the experts to identify who was responsible for the attack.
The Syrian opposition and its allies, including the U.S., accused Damascus of carrying out the attack. Assad's government denied responsibility, blaming the rebels.
The Obama administration threatened to carry out punitive airstrikes against the Syrian government, touching off diplomatic efforts that eventually resulted in Assad accepting a U.S.-Russia brokered deal to relinquish his chemical arsenal.
"The truth is that after the chemical weapons deal, Assad became a partner, and after ISIS, he became a necessity, the lesser of two evils," Saab said, referring to the Islamic State militant group by one of its acronyms.
Assad has long maintained that the uprising against him was a conspiracy carried out by Islamic extremists and terrorists, not a revolt against a dictatorship. He has played on the rise of jihadi groups among rebels in Syria, and has recently stepped up his bombardment of Islamic State strongholds in Syria, in what some see as an attempt to send a message that he is a partner in the war on terrorism.
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