TOLEDO, Ohio — Adam Fisher isn't your typical college freshman.
At 25, he's older than most of his classmates. He's married, too. And while most of his fellow students spent the past couple years in high school, Fisher was dodging bullets and roadside bombs in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Now a civilian, Fisher is trying to make the transition from the battlefields to the classrooms of the University of Toledo.
About two months into a new mission, he is far from alone.
Some 1 million veterans and their dependents have enrolled in U.S. colleges and universities over the past four years, according to the Department of Veterans Affairs. This influx of veterans has come with the drawdown of U.S. forces in Iraq and Afghanistan and more generous financial incentives that generally cover a veteran's tuition, housing and books.
Many veterans face an array of challenges in making the transition to college life.
Some are medical. Fisher, who heard the screams of a soldier burning to death and had a buddy die in his arms, participates in group therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder. He also has some hearing loss.
"It's hard for me to be around so many people," he said. "I don't like it. It makes me feel very uncomfortable."
Other challenges are academic. Veterans often have to sharpen their math, reading and study skills after being away from school for so long.
They face cultural hurdles, too. While many other freshmen are testing their independence after moving away from home for the first time, some of the veterans back in school are supporting a family, working evenings and weekends.
Veterans also must navigate the VA bureaucracy to ensure that their tuition and other aid, such as housing or disability benefits, are paid on time.
Now, increasing numbers of colleges and universities are taking concrete steps to help them make the transition, the University of Toledo among them.
Nearly 400 veterans, including Fisher, are attending class this fall at the school. The president, Lloyd Jacobs, a former Marine, said they "bring strength to our culture, bring strength to our university that's unparalleled."
The American Council on Education says about 71 percent of some 700 colleges and universities responding to a recent survey had an office or department dedicated exclusively to serving veterans. Before the Post-9/11 GI Bill kicked in, a 2009 survey put that percentage at 49 percent.
About two-thirds had clubs or organizations composed of veterans, double from the 2009 survey.
Student Veterans of America, a coalition of student veterans on college campuses around the world, has branched out from fewer than 20 campuses to more than 880 in recent years.
Michael Dakduk, the group's outgoing executive director, said colleges have adjusted to the wave of veterans by hiring people exclusively to serve them and their dependents. Schools also are establishing peer mentoring and tutoring programs. The extra resources give veterans the sense they don't have to face the challenges of college life on their own, he said.
The VA has placed counselors on 92 college campuses. The counselors connect students to local VA medical care and help them apply for other benefits.
About 500 veterans attend school at Florida State University, an increase of about 40 percent from the previous fall.