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Timeline: Key events in Egypt's revolution and transition

Associated Press

Published: Sunday, June 30 2013 1:15 p.m. MDT

Opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi protest outside the presidential palace in Cairo, Egypt, Sunday, June 30, 2013. Hundreds of thousands of opponents of Egypt's Islamist president poured out onto the streets in Cairo and across much of the nation Sunday, launching an all-out push to force Mohammed Morsi from office on the one-year anniversary of his inauguration. Fears of violence were high, with Morsi's Islamist supporters vowing to defend him.

Nariman El-Mofty, Associated Press

Enlarge photo»

CAIRO — Hundreds of thousands of Egyptian marched in the streets Sunday demanding the removal of President Mohammed Morsi on the anniversary of his inauguration, with his Islamist backers vowing to defend him.

Here are some key events from more than two years of turmoil and transition.

Jan. 25-Feb. 11, 2011 — Egyptians stage nationwide demonstrations against the rule of autocrat Hosni Mubarak, who led the country for nearly three decades. The 18-day "revolution," launched by secular and leftist youth, draws in a wide spectrum, including the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamists. Hundreds of protesters are killed as Mubarak and his allies try to crush the uprising.

Feb. 11 — Mubarak steps down and turns power over to the military. Two days later, the body of top generals, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, dissolves parliament and suspends the constitution, meeting two key demands of protesters.

March 19 — In the first post-Mubarak vote, Egyptians cast ballots on constitutional amendments sponsored by the military setting the framework for the transition to democracy, including scheduling the first parliamentary and presidential elections. Islamists back the amendments, eager to hold elections they are poised to dominate. Many revolutionaries push for a "no" vote, arguing a constitution should be written first. The measures are overwhelmingly approved.

Oct. 9 — Military troops crush a protest by Christians in Cairo over a church attack, killing more than 25 protesters. The rally as among many during the military's nearly 17-month rule, with protesters often calling for the removal of the generals and clashes frequently erupting that killed dozens

Nov. 28, 2011-Feb 15, 2012 — Egypt holds multistage, weekslong parliamentary elections, with Islamists scoring big. In the lawmaking lower house, the Muslim Brotherhood wins nearly half the seats, and ultraconservative Salafis take another quarter. The remainder goes to liberal, leftist, independent and secular politicians. In the largely powerless upper house, few voters bother to cast ballots, and Islamists take nearly 90 percent of the seats.

May 23-24, 2012 — The first round of voting in presidential elections, with a field of 13 candidates. Morsi and Ahmed Shafiq, the last prime minister under Mubarak, emerge as winners to face each other in a runoff.

June 14 — The Supreme Constitutional Court orders the dissolving of the Islamist-dominated lower house of parliament on grounds that a third of its members were elected illegally. The military swiftly closes down parliament.

June 16-17 — Egyptians vote in the presidential runoff between Morsi and Shafiq. The generals issue a "constitutional declaration" giving themselves sweeping authorities and limiting the powers of the next president. Morsi emerges as the victor, with 51.7 percent of the vote.

June 30 — Morsi takes his formal oath of office before the Supreme Constitutional Court, a day after reading a symbolic oath in Cairo's Tahrir Square, birthplace of the revolution.

Aug. 12 — In a bold move, Morsi orders the retirement of the top Mubarak-era leadership of the military and cancels the military's last constitutional decree, taking back the powers that the generals gave themselves. The move was seen as way to curb the military's role in political affairs but it also gave Morsi the power to legislate in the absence of parliament.

Nov. 19 — Members of liberal parties and representatives of Egypt's churches withdraw from the 100-member assembly writing the constitution, created by parliament before it was dissolved. They say they are protesting attempts by Islamists who dominate the panel to impose their will on the draft.

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