What's the problem with Internet-monitoring program known as PRISM?
J. Scott Applewhite, File, Associated Press
WASHINGTON — When the federal government went looking for phone numbers tied to terrorists, it grabbed the records of just about everyone in America.
Why every phone number?
"Well, you have to start someplace," Director of National Intelligence James Clapper told NBC News on Monday.
That breadth, that willingness to sweep up enormous information on Americans with no ties to terrorists, is making it hard for the Obama administration to tamp down controversy over a separate program, called PRISM, to monitor Internet traffic.
In short, critics ask, if looking for terrorists means collecting every American's phone records, how can anyone believe the president when he says Americans aren't being monitored on the Internet?
"These things are very narrowly circumscribed," Obama said. "They're very focused."
The Internet program came to light last week in documents published by The Washington Post and Guardian newspapers. It allows the NSA to reach into the data streams of U.S. companies — Facebook, Yahoo, Microsoft, Google and others — and grab emails, video chats, pictures and more.
Just how much the government seizes is unclear. Clapper says it is narrowly focused on foreign targets, and technology companies say they turn over only information that's required by court order.
But after reading a leaked court document last week that allowed NSA to sweep up millions of American phone records, Trevor Timm of the Electronic Frontier Foundation said, "The question is how broad the orders are they're giving these companies."
PRISM was born late in George W. Bush's administration, but its bloodline can be traced to the frenzied aftermath of 9/11.
It used to be that, when the federal government wanted to read a foreigner's Yahoo or Microsoft emails, it needed a judge's approval. After the attacks, Bush secretly authorized the National Security Agency to get to skip that oversight and read U.S.-based email accounts in real time.
When the New York Times revealed the existence of that program, the Bush administration appealed to Congress, saying court approval was too arduous. There were too many emails to monitor. Getting warrants for each one took too long.
"In certain cases, this process of obtaining a court order slows, and in some cases may prevent, the government's efforts to conduct surveillance of communications that are potentially vital to the national security," Kenneth Wainstein, then the Justice Department's top national security prosecutor, testified in 2007.
Sometimes, the government would sweep up Americans' emails, but not intentionally.
"As a matter of due course, if you're targeting something foreign, you could inadvertently intercept an American," said Michael McConnell, the director of national intelligence at the time.
Congress agreed. No more warrants.
With that, PRISM was born.
Now, the government needs only explain to Congress and a secret court exactly how it intends to collect information like emails, Skype video conferences and Facebook messages. Once the court approves the collection rules, the government can grab anything it wants.
Judging from the documents released by the Post and Guardian, PRISM takes a lot of data and quickly. An NSA document said PRISM was the eavesdropping program "used most" by the agency.
The law says the government must limit its surveillance to people "reasonably believed to be located outside the United States."
But everything hinges words such as "targeting" and "collecting," which have unique meanings in the spy world.
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