The reputation of the church in Latin America was badly hurt by sex abuse scandals, mostly notoriously the case of the late Father Marcial Maciel, the once-revered Mexican founder of an ultra-conservative religious congregation known as the Legion of Christ. Maciel was a favorite of the Vatican and especially of John Paul before it was revealed he sexually abused seminarians for decades, fathered at least three children by two or more women and was a drug addict. Benedict finally removed Maciel from duties in 2006 shortly before his death and ordered the organization overhauled.
The Maciel case cast a pall over Benedict's pilgrimage to central Mexico last year, when victims and their supporters staged competing events and demanded a meeting with the pontiff. Although Benedict has conferred with sexual abuse victims in some of his voyages, he did not do so in Mexico. It is not clear whether the conservative local church hierarchy, some of whose senior members had also protected Maciel for years, made the petition known to the Holy See.
In Mexico and Brazil, two of the three Latin American countries where Benedict has set foot - the other was Cuba - the mood seems to overwhelmingly favor a different kind of pope.
"The church needs renewal," Edson Jose de Souza, 43, who runs a glass business, said two Sundays ago outside the Nossa Senhora de Fatima e Santo Amaro church in the Brazilian beach town of Guaruja. Mass was packed, with worshippers in surf wear and older couples fanning themselves, all spilling out into the street from the chapel.
"Over the last few decades we've suffered huge losses of the faithful to other religions, especially the evangelical churches. We need to rescue them," said De Souza, who is a member of the Catholic Charismatic Renovation movement, a lively current that has arisen in Brazil to challenge the appeal of the raucous evangelical services.
On the western outskirts of Mexico City, at the Santa Rosa de Lima church, a working-class parish, many of the faithful expressed similar misgivings.
"With all the problems the church has, if they don't do something it will seriously decline," said Refugio Bonilla, a 39-year-old teacher. "We believers will always be here, because we have faith and that's how we were taught. But the new generations, they are losing interest."
At the upscale San Agustin Church (where the son of the world's richest man got married two years ago), in Mexico City's affluent Polanco neighborhood, Alexia Alvarez, 26, was joining a steady parade of worshippers filing in for Mass. She wore surgical scrubs from the hospital where she works as a gynecologist.
"The other one (Pope Benedict) wasn't bad, just very old," she said. "It is time for other priorities, to look here to the poor countries and speak to them."
Benedict had an especially hard act to follow in Mexico, which hosted the much-beloved John Paul five times. In the gift shop at San Agustin, picture cards of most every saint and Catholic icon imaginable were on sale, including John Paul. But there was not a single one of Benedict. "The people don't ask for Benedict," the sales clerk confided.
At next month's conclave, the number of Latin American cardinals who will vote is one fewer than the 20 electors who chose Benedict nearly eight years ago. By contrast, there were also 20 Italians in 2005 but 28 this time around.
Jennifer Scheper Hughes, a history professor at the University of California, Riverside, said the voice of Latin American bishops in Rome has weakened considerably since its heyday during the Second Vatican Council period of reforms in the 1960s. As they look to the selection of a new pope, she said, the faithful in Latin America today "are longing for something else more pastoral, but they are also more cynical and less hopeful that things will change."
Some analysts think Latin American prelates still manage to wield significant influence; in the curia today, for example, Argentina's Cardinal Leonardo Sandri (born to Italian parents) is considered a talented diplomat, is in charge of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches and is often mentioned as a potential pope, and Cardinal Joao Braz de Aviz of Brazil is the prefect in the curial department that oversees institutions dedicated to consecrated life. Although Braz de Aviz is not usually listed as a papal candidate, his countryman Cardinal Odilo Pedro Scherer, archbishop of Sao Paulo, does make some wish lists.
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