JFK holds complex place in black history
Politician played both sides in civil rights, is remembered fondly
Not long ago, three portraits hung in thousands of African-American homes, a visual tribute to men who had helped black people navigate the long journey to equality.
There was Jesus, who represented unconditional hope, strength and love. There was Martin Luther King Jr., who personified the moral crusade that ended legal segregation. And then there was President John F. Kennedy.
Kennedy's inclusion may seem puzzling, considering that his civil rights legacy has undergone substantial reassessment since his Nov. 22, 1963, assassination. But a look at why so many black people revered him then — and why younger generations have largely forgotten his civil rights work — shows that even 50 years later, Kennedy holds an important but complicated place in black history.
"We're still trying to figure it out," says John Mack, a civil rights activist who was fighting segregation in Atlanta when Kennedy was elected president in 1960.
Mack says that we can only speculate on what Kennedy might have done for civil rights had he not been killed.
"It's a question we're wrestling with and cannot answer," Mack says.
For many older African-Americans, Kennedy was a president who sympathized with black struggle like no other before him.
They recall him speaking eloquently against segregation despite resistance from Southern racists in his own Democratic party. Some even feel that his support for civil rights was one reason he was killed, even though racial motives are not prominent among the many theories about Kennedy's death.
Yes, these black folks say, Kennedy may have moved reluctantly on civil rights. Yes, he may have been motivated by the need for votes more than racial justice — but they speak of the effort he made.
"People say he should have moved faster, but he's dead because of the pace that he did move," says Rev. Shirley Jordan, a pastor and community activist in Richmond, Va.
She was 13 when Kennedy was shot in Dallas. She heard the news in school, she recalls, but especially felt the impact when she got home: "My mother cried as though it was her child who had died."
"That was just the tone, the aura. There was a big cloud over the whole black community," Jordan said.
Later, Jordan's parents hung Kennedy's portrait next to King's in their apartment.
Such portraits also were a common sight in black homes for Rev. Charles Booth.
"You always saw pictures of Jesus Christ, John F. Kennedy, Dr. Martin Luther King," says Booth, a pastor in Columbus, Ohio. "You could go in an average home and see a picture of JFK on the wall. In the minds of most black people at the time, he was a friend to the African-American community."
One reason why, Booth says, was Kennedy's relationship with King — though that, too, was complicated.
They first met in June 1960. Kennedy, then a senator from Massachusetts, would soon win the Democratic presidential nomination. King had become a national figure for leading the victorious bus boycott in Montgomery, Ala., that ignited the civil rights movement.
As a Democrat, running against Republican Richard Nixon (at the time, many influential blacks were Republicans), Kennedy faced some difficult racial calculus.
The South, where Jim Crow kept black people in a second-class status, was ruled by Democrats. To win the presidency, Kennedy needed white Southern Democrats, and many of them hated King, whom they saw as a threat to their way of life.
In a speech soon after meeting King, Kennedy spoke of the "moving examples of moral courage" shown by civil rights protesters. Their peaceful demonstrations, he said, were not "to be lamented, but a great sign of responsibility, of good citizenship, of the American spirit."
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