Anthony Devlin, PA
LONDON — Baffled?
If elements of Danny Boyle's three-hour opening ceremony for the London Olympics went over your head, fear not. We are here to help.
The opening ceremony production is replete with inside jokes and cultural references that many non-Brits may find baffling. The Anglophile dream tour embraces the "Slumdog Millionaire" director's complex and by turns dark and whimsical vision of life on this island nation.
Who else would have thought of dancing nurses?
So read on, all will be clear.
RING THAT BELL
What is it with Britain and bells? Boyle ordered up a 27-ton whopper from the Whitechapel Bell Foundry to ring in the games. Founded in 1570 and officially Britain's oldest manufacturing company, Whitechapel — just a few miles from the Olympic Park — also made London's Big Ben and Philadelphia's Liberty Bell. Boyle loved that ringing a bell to begin a performance was customary at the time of Shakespeare. The bell rung Friday will be inscribed with a line from "The Tempest," in which Caliban says "Be not afeard; the isle is full of noises."
NURSES, NURSES, EVERYWHERE
Boyle recruited real nurses working for the National Health Service to take part, a tribute to a treasured national institution that started in 1948 amid the ruins of war-devastated Britain. The state-funded NHS provides free health treatment to all Britons, and is embraced by all political parties. While grumbling about its perceived slow service is widespread — and planned government reforms are controversial — its egalitarian ethos is a matter of national pride. When U.S. Republicans criticized the NHS in 2009, a Twitter campaign in its defense became so popular it crashed the NHS website.
WHAT IS JERUSALEM?
Well, there's the one in the Middle East, and then there's "Jerusalem," the hymn that doubles as England's unofficial national anthem, belted out at big state occasions and sports matches alike. It's based on a poem by William Blake, which wonders whether there is truth to the legend that Jesus visited England as a young man: ("And did those feet, in ancient time; walk upon England's mountains green?") Blake — like Boyle — contrasts that with a bleaker nation of industrialized "dark Satanic mills," before calling - "Bring me my chariot of fire!" for a new heaven to be built "in England's green and pleasant land."
SPEAKING OF SATANIC MILLS
Britain was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, when transformations in agriculture, transportation and technology brutally reshaped society between 1760 and 1850. Spinning technology led to the creation of textile factories, which was followed by James Watt's invention of the steam engine, and improved coal mining techniques that powered railroads and ships. The advances of the industrial revolution also led to abuses, which sparked riots by workers and eventually spurred the creation of modern organized labor, as well as overcrowding and unsanitary conditions in British cities that triggered outbreaks of cholera and typhoid.
All that industry made Britain an innovation powerhouse — and Boyle celebrates its pioneers, past and present. He has drawn inspiration from two Britons whose names many don't know, but whose legacy surrounds us every day — Isambard Kingdom Brunel and Tim Berners-Lee. Brunel was the pioneering Victorian engineer who helped knit Britain together with an infrastructure of iron bridges and railways. He died in 1859 but many of his creations — including the first tunnel under the River Thames — are still in use. Computer scientist Berners-Lee is the inventor of the World Wide Web, the infrastructure of the Internet, which is still transforming the way we communicate and the way we live.
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