"For small- and mid-size employers who actually generate a lot of the jobs in this economy, developing that kind of training for 5 or 10 employees that they're going to hire, it's not economically feasible," said Rachel Unruh, associate director of the National Skills Coalition, a foundation-supported workforce development coalition. That's where community colleges come in.
On the factory floor at Fitzpatrick Manufacturing, $100,000 machines do work that used to be cranked by hand — but somebody has to know how to run the machines. Software evolves constantly, as do the machines customers are building with these parts. For some parts, the margin of error can be no more than .0004 inches — roughly one-tenth the width of a human hair.
One typical "middle skill" is called "geometric dimensioning and tolerancing," or GDT. Basically, it's a language of symbols used in engineering blueprints. Customers used to give companies like Fitzpatrick blueprints with written words, but that left too much room for error. Now the field has shifted to GDT as a kind of lingua franca. On two recent Saturdays, Macomb instructors came by to help employees brush up on GDT.
"To learn calculus that you would learn in an engineering curriculum is all well and good," said Mike Fitzpatrick, whose family founded the company in 1952 and who sold it to LaComb and a partner last year but remains on staff. "But it has nothing to do with us."
Large companies are no less appreciative of rapid response times. When the big Dow Chemical plant in Midland, about two hours north of here, is ready to ramp up production in its chemical processing unit, it calls Patricia Graves at nearby Delta College, who in turn starts calling a list of interested students to ask, "When can you start?"
Soon, another "Fast Start" customized training program in chemical process operations is up and running at Delta. Sixteen weeks later, virtually all graduates move on to work for Dow Chemical or one of the other major plants in the region. Some return to Delta after they start work for even more customized training. Delta has trained and placed eight such groups of roughly 20 people each. Now it offers versions serving other Dow operations in the area, including a six-week program for solar manufacturing and a 10-week program in batteries.
When the call comes "we'd like six weeks" lead time to get a new class running, said Graves, Delta's executive director of corporate services. "We can do it in four. We've actually done it in two."
Certainly community colleges have shortcomings and challenges, namely high failure rates for students who intend eventually to earn a degree.
Community colleges say that's to be expected given the wide mission they're asked to perform, and the fact that they receive just 27 percent of total public dollars spent on public higher education but serve 43 percent of students, according to the American Association of Community Colleges. Enrollments have risen more than a quarter over the last decade, yet tuition has held relatively steady even as costs have soared at four-year colleges. For the average enrolled student, community college is basically free when you factor in grants and aid, according to the College Board.
But criticisms about bureaucracy and lack of success in community colleges are usually directed at for-credit programs and degrees. Non-credit programs, which serve an estimated 5 million out of 13 million community college students nationally, often have a very different, more entrepreneurial feel. Such instruction doesn't have to please curriculum committees and state boards, just local employers and employees. And often what they want is speed.
"On the non-credit side, there's much more flexibility," said Mike Hansen, president of the Michigan Community College Association. "There's much less of an approval process, and the structures of the colleges tend to be me much leaner."
In his budget unveiled last week, Obama asked Congress to create an $8 billion fund to help community colleges train up to 2 million workers for jobs in high-growth fields, and to award financial incentives to make sure trainees find permanent work. There were few other details about how the proposal might work, and it faces long odds in Congress.
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