As noted last week, most Book of Mormon geographic models have had the misfortune of garnering supporters who are zealous but uninformed. Fortunately, virtually all models have also attracted the thoughts and comments of educated amateur enthusiasts.
While some of these amateurs may not have had professional training in Ancient American studies, archaeology or anthropology, some have had academic training in other fields that contribute to their critical thinking skills and prove useful in Book of Mormon studies. Diane Wirth, for example, has studied Mesoamerican art for over 25 years (often under the tutelage of top Mesoamerican scholars) and has made some valuable contributions to our understanding of Mesoamerican iconography.
Among the more educated LDS amateur enthusiasts who have also made important contributions to the Mesoamerican geographic model we can includeÂ Dr. David A. Palmer, Dr. John L. Lund, Dr. Joseph L. Allen and Dr. Lawrence Poulsen.
The late BYU Professor Dr. Sidney Sperry (one of the greatest LDS scholars of the last century) initially believed that Cumorah was located in upstate New York but changed his position upon further study. âIt is now my very carefully studied and considered opinion,â he wrote, âthat the Hill Cumorah to which Mormon and his people gathered was somewhere in Middle America.â
President Joseph Fielding Smith, an apostle at the time, had written some things that conflicted with Sperryâs view of Cumorah, and Sperry was concerned about contradicting Smith in print. To Sperryâs relief, however, âElder Smith then lovingly put his arm around his shoulder and said, âSidney, you are as entitled to your opinion as I am to mine. You go ahead and publish it.ââ
Dr. Hugh Nibley once made the statement that the Nephite temple structures may have been more modest than typical Central American pyramids and may have been more along the lines of those from the Hopewell tradition in the Great Lakes region. Despite this comparison, Nibley was a supporter of the Mesoamerican geographic model and was pleased when Sidney Sperry came around to the same position.
In several of Dr. Nibleyâs books he expressed this belief. âIt is our conviction,â he wrote, âthat proof of the Book of Mormon does lie in Central America.â And in 2003, he reiterated to his friend Kirk Magleby (one of the founding fathers of FARMS â now BYUâs Maxwell Institute) âthat the Book of Mormon took place in Mesoamerica with echoes and remnants filtering up into the native cultures of the continental United States.â
In addition to the educated but amateur enthusiasts, we find that the vast majority of all LDS professionals who have training in archaeology, anthropology or ethnohistory seem to favor the general Mesoamerican model. Such LDS professionals include the followingÂ individuals:
Brant A. Gardner (MA Anthropology, State University of New York) specializes in Mesoamerican ethnohistory and is the author of the highly acclaimed, six volume work, "Second Witness: Analytical & Contextual Commentary on the Book of Mormon."
The late Dr. M. Wells Jakeman (to be discussed more next week) was an archaeologist and has been described as âthe father of Book of Mormon archaeology.â He founded the department of archaeology at BYU.
V. Garth Norman (MS Anthropology/Archaeology, BYU) has specialized training in archaeoastronomy as well as Ancient Studies. Norman has done field work in Mesoamerica and is a specialist in the Mesoamerican Civilization-Izapan Culture.
PhD candidate Mark A. Wright (BA, Anthropology UCLA). Wrightâs research specialization is Mesoamerican archaeology, and his dissertation focuses specifically on the institution of divine kingship among the ancient Maya civilization.
Dr. Kim Goldsmith and her husband Alejandro Sarabia were professional non-LDS Mesoamerican archaeologists long before they discovered the Church. While they were converted through a spiritual witness, they believe that the Book of Mormon has an overwhelming number of important points that easily fit in with myriad geographic and cultural traits of ancient Mesoamerica (cited in "Shaken Faith Syndrome," page 100).
Dr. John E. Clark (PhD, University of Michigan) is a professor of anthropology at BYU, the past director of the "New World Archaeological Foundation," and is widely respected in the field of Mesoamerican anthropology and archaeology. His books (some of which he co-authored) are frequently used as course-study readings in the archaeology departments of other universities. He is also on the editorial board for the "Ancient Mesoamerica Journal" (Cambridge). While Dr. Clark has never put his stamp of approval on any specific Book of Mormon geography, his writings indicate that he favors a general Mesoamerican model.
Dr. John L. Sorenson (PhD, University of California) â to be discussed more next week â is professor emeritus of anthropology at BYU. In 1990 Dr. Sorenson and Dr. Martin H. Raish authored a book titled "Pre-Columbian Contact with the Americas across the Oceans: An Annotated Bibliography." Harvard included this book in the reading list for their âIssues in Atlantic History,â part of âInternational Seminar on the History of the Atlantic World,â which was a course for students entering their Ph.D. programs. Sorensonâs, âA Chronological Ordering of the Mesoamerican Pre-Classic,â is also cited in the "American Anthropologist."
While having experts on oneâs side doesnât guarantee the most accurate position, such experts can shed scholarly light on the overall issues.