The Mountain Meadows Massacre was not inevitable.
"It could have been stopped at any point along the way," historian Richard E. Turley Jr. said.
But it wasn't.
"It could have been stopped right there at the very end," Turley said.
But it wasn't.
In a recent interview, Mormon authors Turley, Ronald W. Walker and Glen M. Leonard talked about their comprehensive and fresh look at a dark moment in Utah history.
On Sept. 11, 1857, about 120 men, women and children from a wagon train were killed by members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Only children who were considered too young to tell the tale were spared.
The authors' book, "Massacre at Mountain Meadows," places this tragedy in the context of the times. They used scholarly works on ethnic and religious violence to demonstrate that the event was not unique to Mormons, Utah or even the United States.
"If you read the international sections of newspapers ... you'll see that mass killings go on every year throughout the world," Turley said.
"What makes this so compelling to a Mormon audience is the gap between ideals and acts," Walker said. "Here are people who professed, and, I think, generally embodied high ideals who messed up badly, awfully, tragically, atrociously. And I think that's why it is so compelling."
Turley said that all peoples and cultures are made up of flawed humans who make mistakes. Every group, organization, community and church has committed errors because they are made up of people.
"All those groups are going to have aspects in their past that they wished had not occurred," Turley said. "This is one for us — and the worst one.
"As the worst event in Mormon history, if we can face this topic, we can face anything."
But facing the topic of massacres is still difficult. Massacres of American Indians, for example, are often forgotten.
"I think that Indian massacres with greater number of causalities deserve greater attention (than they have received) and that they have been overlooked in American history because the victims didn't live to tell their side of the story," Turley said. "And because the victors have told the story often as tales of war and battles, when in fact what you had was massacres."
"A massacre is a massacre," Turley said. "An atrocity is an atrocity. And you can't make distinctions between them based on any kind of rational distinction."
"If you are a victim, your pain isn't lessened by the fact that there might have been greater numbers in another incident somewhere else," Turley said.
The pain of the Mountain Meadows Massacre continues to echo across time. It still affects members of the LDS Church, descendants and relatives of the victims, and others. The authors hope their book can provide "catharsis" — a release of deep, emotional healing.
But for Walker, Leonard and Turley, there are still some echoes of the massacre that haunt them.
"I don't like violence. I abhor violence," Walker said. "I particularly abhor violence when it involves kids. A lot of older children and teenagers were on the killing fields. That might be the most wrenching thing for me."
For Leonard, it was the necessity of being an eyewitness, through historic research, of the killing of women and children. But it doesn't end there for him. It is the immediate aftermath of the killing and what happens to the surviving young children of the dead.
"And then when the surviving children were gathered up and taken to the (Jacob) Hamblin Ranch, orphans now, and there they are spending the night and Mrs. Hamblin is trying to care for them and her own children. And they are crying," said Leonard. "And they cried. And for me that just got right into me. It was one way of saying it is awful to see the people die, but it is awful to realize that some didn't — (who were spared) for the simple reason that they couldn't tell the story, supposedly. But they are victims in another way. And that moment just grabs me every time I think about it or read it. It sinks deep."
The book says "the children cried all night."
For Turley, it isn't so much what happened, as what could have happened.
"The massacre itself was certainly for me the most horrific moment," Turley said. "But in terms of something short of the massacre, the events leading up to it, and in particular the march from the wagon corral up to the point of the final massacre, creates in me, even today as I read it, this tremendous desire to run into the middle of it and try to stop it.
"Because you see these events building on both sides and you know that something terrible is about to happen. And you know also that these are people who at a different time or at a different place might have been friends.
"Suddenly they come together in a way that some of them are going to do the unthinkable.
"And I just want to run into the middle of that and yell, 'Stop!' "
Read more about the Mountain Meadows Massacre: