WASHINGTON — Political scientist Jack Pitney says "The Federalist Papers" won't help you understand redistricting. You need to read "The Godfather."

As states redraw congressional districts, the once-a-decade process can also be used to exact political revenge.

Pitney teaches at Claremont McKenna College and says it's no surprise partisan rivalries creep into the process.

Political adversaries rarely make their efforts explicit. Texas Republicans, for example, maintain they have put forward a fair map designed to reflect the state's conservative tilt.

But Democratic Rep. Lloyd Doggett says he's certain his past squabbles with the Republican-controlled Legislature and Texas Gov. Rick Perry are to blame for his experiences.

The first time the Texas' Legislature redrew Doggett's district, they cut it into three pieces. This year they sliced it into five.