Paul Sakuma, File, Associated Press
A list of the men who have held the chief executive role at Apple Inc.:
1977 to 1981: Michael Scott, director of manufacturing at National Semiconductor Corp. Went on to become a collector of and expert on gemstones.
1981 to 1983: Mike Markkula, formerly of Fairchild Semiconductor International and Intel Corp. Was an initial angel investor in Apple. Chaired Apple's board until 1996, went on to found Echelon Corp., ACM Aviation, San Jose Jet Center and Rana Creek Habitat Restoration.
1983 to 1993: John Sculley, Pepsico's CEO. Went on to become a venture capitalist.
1993 to 1996: Michael Spindler. Rose through the ranks at Apple to become CEO.
1996 to 1997: Gil Amelio, CEO of National Semiconductor and Apple board member. After Apple, he became a venture capitalist.
1997 to 2000: Steve Jobs(asterisk)
2000 to 2011: Steve Jobs is named CEO in 2000.
2011: Tim Cook, previously Apple's chief operating officer, is named CEO on Aug. 24.
(asterisk)Jobs returns to Apple as an adviser, then operates as de facto head of the company.
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