The Billings Gazette, Casey Page, Associated Press
HEART MOUNTAIN, Wyo. — They joined hands around a pair of pliers and cut the symbolic strand of barbed wire that restricted them 66 years ago.
For three years during World War II, more than 10,000 Japanese-Americans were interned here at the Heart Mountain Relocation Center. Many vowed they'd never return once they were freed in 1945 after the surrender of Japan.
But on Saturday, more than 250 former internees, accompanied by family members, friends and supporters, returned to this rural landscape to celebrate the grand opening of the Heart Mountain Interpretive Learning Center.
After decades of discussion, years of planning and millions of dollars in fundraising, the center welcomed its first guests Saturday after the cutting of the wire.
More than 1,200 people were on hand, moved by public reflection and entertained by ceremonies rich in Japanese custom.
In the 66 years since the camp's occupants were allowed to go home, Heart Mountain's message has become one of the lessons learned.
It's a symbolic reminder of what one speaker called "an imperfect response" to public hysteria and manufactured outrage.
"This is not about the past, but rather, this is about the future," said Norman Mineta, a former internee who went on to become a U.S. congressman and Cabinet member. "History always has the ability of repeating itself. But what you're doing here is drawing that line in the sand, saying that this will never happen again."
Mineta arrived at Heart Mountain as a boy in 1942 and lived with his family in confinement until 1945. Later, his ambition carried him to politics, and after 20 years in Congress, he went on to fill Cabinet posts under two presidents.
On Sept. 11, 2001, Mineta was serving as the Secretary of Transportation under President George W. Bush. The terrorist attacks forced Mineta to ground all civilian aircraft and enact tighter security before they were allowed to fly again.
"There were a lot of people saying not to let the Muslims back on the airplanes," Mineta said. "They were talking about internment and rounding them up. These were phrases and thoughts that were similar to something many of us had experienced when we were profiled (after Pearl Harbor)."
Heart Mountain was one of 10 relocation centers built across the U.S. in response to President Franklin Roosevelt's signing of Executive Order 9066, authorizing the mass removal of 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry living on the West Coast.
Three months earlier, in December 1941, Sen. Daniel Inouye, D-Hawaii, was a boy fixing his tie in the mirror, preparing for church, when the local radio station broadcast the news: Pearl Harbor was under attack.
"I took my father and went out in the street and looked down toward Pearl Harbor," Inouye said. "You could see black puffs in the air. Three aircraft flew over, gray in color, with the Rising Sun on the wing. At that moment, I knew that my life had changed."
Inouye served as an officer with the U.S. Army's 442nd Regimental Combat Team in Germany, eventually winning the Medal of Honor for valor in battle.
When he returned home, wearing his uniform, medals pinned on his chest, Inouye was refused service at a restaurant. The proprietor said they "didn't serve his kind" — never mind his Medal of Honor.
Like so many other former internees who attended the Heart Mountain ceremonies, Inouye didn't let his physical and emotional wounds alter his future. He became Hawaii's first congressman in 1959 and was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1962.
He helped to win passage of the Civil Liberties Act of 1988, a law that acknowledged the injustice of interning Americans of Japanese ancestry during the war and established reparations.
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