PEARL HARBOR, Hawaii — Political assassinations in Tokyo. Censorship and the stifling of dissent. A nation hungry for oil and other natural resources. Kimono-clad women in department stores and boarding street cars. A smiling Babe Ruth posing for photos with Japanese teenage baseball players while on tour with other American all-stars.
Visitors to Pearl Harbor are seeing these snapshots of 1930s Japan as they stroll through the National Park Service's new museum devoted to the Dec. 7, 1941 attack that dragged the U.S. into World War II. This is a significant departure from the old collection devoted to one of worst foreign attacks ever on American soil — what life was like in Japan at the time didn't much figure into it.
The center, which officially opened last Dec. 7 and is drawing about 4,000 visitors a day, was built in part because the old one was sinking on reclaimed land. The park service had also outgrown the old facility.
The new center is on the same site, but has expanded to cover several times the original area. At the center, a large grassy field overlooks the harbor to the USS Arizona Memorial, which sits above the battleship that sank just off Ford Island at the height of the battle. Benches are placed along the field, outside the exhibit halls and along open-air walkways between buildings — a design element to give people a chance to contemplate or decompress after absorbing what they're read, heard and seen inside.
Planning for the exhibits began five years ago when the park service brought in top historians to brainstorm what the displays should contain. The themes that emerged fit inside two halls, "Road to War" and "Attack." A courtyard is dedicated to Hawaiian history.
The end result is a broader, more in-depth view of the Sunday morning attack nearly 70 years ago. The passage of time helped achieve the new vision. So did the efforts of Japanese pilots and American survivors to reach out to each other and overcome deeply ingrained bitterness.
Daniel Martinez, the park service's chief Pearl Harbor historian, said it wouldn't have been possible to include the Japanese viewpoint in any official examination of the attack when he first started working at the visitors' center in the 1980s.
"It was just too recent and the wounds were still open," Martinez said. "The idea of exploration of history would have been found unsavory by some of the Pearl Harbor survivors who were still dealing with the wounds of that war."
The old visitors' center, which was built 1980, had models of the USS Arizona and of a Japanese aircraft carrier. The small exhibit hall displayed the belongings of sailors then stationed at Pearl Harbor.
It was more of a shrine than a place that analyzed a pivotal moment in 20th century history.
Today, with the $56 million renovation, the park service is allowing visitors to heed the admonition — "Remember Pearl Harbor" — much more thoroughly than before.
The museum shows clips from Japanese theater newsreels, including festive scenes of Ruth playing baseball during a tour. The exhibits also show Japan and the U.S. creeping closer to war, with newspaper headlines about Japan's invasion of China and U.S. sanctions against Japan.
The enlarged museum allows for more of the U.S. story to be told, as well. There are photos of bodies crowding the Honolulu morgue, coffins being buried at Kaneohe Beach and a burned corpse at Hickam Field. A glass display case shelters a pharmacist mate's bloodied white uniform. Visitors get to hear what civilians went through, including children who carried gas masks to school as Hawaii hunkered down for feared follow-on attacks.
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