Full-day kindergarten can be 'life-changing,' improves scores, later success
Some lawmakers, parents resistant to longer kindergarten
In Canyons School District, where full-day kindergarten is offered at Title I schools, kindergartners saw a 40 percent gain in literacy skills last year, said Amber Roderick-Landward, who oversees curriculum for elementary schools in the district. She said the district is able to close the achievement gap easier and much quicker in the early years than later on. She hopes to offer more full-day kindergarten classes if funds are made available.
In Cache County, just an 30 extra minutes of intensive literacy instruction a day for the most at-risk kindergarten classes has made a big difference, said Sarah Krebs, literacy specialist for the district. The district choose to serve more students in a shorter time period with the optional extended-day kindergarten money but would love to be able to offer full-day kindergarten to their students as well.
In Salt Lake City School District last year, students who averaged a 20 percent achievement gap to their peers before kindergarten in language arts only had a 2 percent gap after participating in full-day kindergarten.
"It's really the only time in a child's education we can double their educational instructional time," said Jo Ellen Shaeffer, assessment and evaluation director for the Salt Lake City School District. Many of Salt Lake City's Title 1 schools have full-day kindergarten classes for all students. And Shaeffer said only a handful of parents opt out while there are dozens of students on waiting lists.
Statewide, only about 1 percent of parents notified that their child qualifies for all-day kindergarten opts out, Spencer said.
"We have never had a program that's had more evidence than this behind it," Spencer said. "It is making a difference."
And research backs up these kinds of trends.
Students in full-day kindergarten get more time for one-on-one attention with the teacher, and they also normally have more academic-focused learning time, said Peter Pizzolongo, senior director for professional development for The National Association for the Education of Young Children.
While some studies show some of these all-day kindergartners leveling off after third grade in academic achievement, he believes it's because students at risk need additional programs in higher grades to keep them on track and not because full-day kindergarten did offer them that at the time.
Some studies have shown up to a $17 return for every $1 spent on early childhood education, he said.
"When you look at 12th grade physics and then you look at children playing at a water table, the latter doesn't seem like anything you would want to spend your money on," Pizzolongo said. "But a quality kindergarten class is as important, if not more important, than a 12th grade physics class."
Also, the states making the biggest strides in student performance are dedicating funds to early childhood education, Spencer said. Florida, a state Utah has looked to as an example for academic success, has over 60 percent of its 4-year-olds in pre-K programs, according to the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER). And nationwide, 60 percent of kindergartners are in a full-day program.
But groups like the Utah Eagle Forum are against full-day kindergarten, saying 5-year-olds need to spend more time with their parents.
Gayle Ruzicka, president of Utah Eagle Forum, said traditionally kindergarten was meant to be half-day to prepare students for a full day in first grade.
"It seems more and more they try to push little children out of the home sooner," said Ruzicka, who called full-day kindergarten an anti-family policy. "I believe a child does better if they can stay at home and play with their mother or father and prepare for all-day in first grade."
And traditionally legislatures have been wary of offering a full-day kindergarten program to students not at risk, feeling parents might just see it as a free day care service.
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