Wally Santana, Pool, Associated Press
SEOUL, South Korea — One month after a deadly exchange of artillery fire, the two Koreas ramped up their rhetoric, with South Korea's president pledging unsparing retaliation if attacked again and a top North Korean official threatening a "sacred" nuclear war if provoked.
South Korean troops, tanks and fighter jets put on a thundering display of force Thursday as President Lee Myung-bak visited with soldiers at a base near the border, while North Korea's elite marked a key military anniversary by lashing out at the South for encouraging war.
For both countries, the rallying cries and military maneuvers mainly seemed designed to build support at home. But they raised fears anew of all-out war on a peninsula that New Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson called a "tinderbox" after returning from a visit to the North Korean capital this week.
The two Koreas and their allies called a truce in 1953 to end three years of devastating war, but violence has flared up from time to time, most recently in the disputed waters off their west coast. North Korea does not recognize the maritime line drawn by U.N. forces, and the territorial dispute in the Yellow Sea has erupted into deadly naval skirmishes.
In March, a South Korean warship went down in the western waters, killing 46 sailors. And a month ago, South Korean live-fire drills in nearby waters triggered a North Korean artillery shower on Yeonpyeong Island that killed four South Koreans, the first attack on a civilian area since the Korean War.
Caught by surprise, Seoul since has beefed up its rules of engagement and has staged military drills, including joint exercises with U.S. troops, meant to remind the North of its superior firepower. The South even carried out provocative artillery drills from Yeonpyeong Island on Monday in a bold dare to the North to retaliate.
According to a report released Thursday by the International Crisis Group, the Koreas' disputed maritime boundary and the volatility of North Korea's internal politics have "created a serious risk that any further provocation might turn into a wider conflict."
While the North would lose in an all-out war against the South and its U.S. ally, "Seoul is constrained in retaliating forcefully because it has so much to lose" economically and politically, the report said. "Pyongyang, isolated from global markets and domestic political forces, does not face such constraints. Rather, the disparity permits it to provoke the South at very little cost, even while falling behind in the overall balance of conventional forces."
The drills continued Thursday, with tanks firing artillery and fighter jets dropping bombs at training grounds in Pocheon, some 20 miles (30 kilometers) from the North. The boom of cannons echoed throughout the valley and the hills erupted in smoke during the brief but dramatic exercise.
There was a theatrical quality to the exercises: Dozens of excited schoolchildren in bright yellow jackets were shuttled to the site to watch from bleachers as military music blared from loudspeakers.
President Lee met with troops manning a front-line army base in the east on the type of morale-boosting visit more commonly seen in the North. He vowed to retaliate if attacked again.
"I had thought that we could safeguard peace if we had patience, but that wasn't the case," he told the troops, according to his office. Any surprise attack will be met with an "unsparing" response, he warned.
After days of showing restraint, North Korea condemned the drills as a "grave military provocation." Defense chief Kim Yong Chun said North Korea was prepared to launch a "sacred war" and poised to use its nuclear capabilities to defend itself.
Kim said in Pyongyang that the military would deal "more devastating physical blows" if its rivals violate North Korean territory by even a millimeter. He also threatened to "wipe out" South Korea and the U.S. if they start a war, the official Korean Central News Agency reported.
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