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BUSH URGES MANDELA TO RENOUNCE VIOLENCE

Published: Monday, June 25 1990 12:00 a.m. MDT

President Bush Monday urged Nelson Mandela to renounce violence, but the black nationalist leader bluntly retorted that Bush did not have all the facts and reserved the right to use any tactics necesssary to end apartheid in South Africa.

"All parties must seize the opportunity to move ahead in a spirit of compromise and tolerance, flexibility and patience . . . I call on all elements in South African society to renounce the use of violence and armed struggle; break free from this cycle of repression and violent reaction that breeds nothing but more fear and suffering," Bush said.But Mandela, speaking without notes at a White House welcoming ceremony, countered that the tactics of his African National Congress (ANC) and other South African blacks would be determined by the attitude of his country's white minority government.

"When a government decides to ban political organizations of the oppressed, intensifies oppression and does not allow any political activity no matter how peaceful and non-violent, then the people have no alternative but to resort to violence," Mandela said of past violence.

In an unusually candid aside, he also said Bush's stance on the use of force reflected a lack of information.

"I will also inform him about developments as far as the armed struggle is concerned. The remarks that he has made here are due to the fact that he has not yet got a proper briefing from us," Mandela said.

Mandela, who was released from jail in February after more than 27 years, said there would be no need to use violence as long as the government of President F.W. de Klerk remained committed to dismantling the apartheid system.

The differing viewpoints on armed resistance were illustrated starkly by Mandela's wife, Winnie, who said Sunday night that Pretoria was ready to deal only because of the black South Africans' willingness to take up arms.

But Bush, in support of his call for peaceful change, cited a martyred American black civil rights leader often quoted by Mandela.

"In the words of the great Martin Luther King Jr., let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred," he said.

Mandela, who came here after tumultuous welcomes in New York and Boston, said he would ask Bush to maintain U.S. economic sanctions and other pressure on Pretoria.

"It is because of sanctions that such enormous progress has been made in the attempt to address the problems of our country," he said.

Bush offered a strong denunciation of apartheid, calling it "repugnant to the conscience of men and women everywhere." But he also "applauded" as "positive developments" de Klerk's efforts to bring blacks into South Africa's political system.

The president also said he would be ready to consult with Congress about lifting economic sanctions once Pretoria fulfilled the requirements laid out under U.S. law.

"Our sanctions have been designed to support change. And when conditions laid down in our law have been met, then and only then will we consider, in consultation with the Congress, whether a change in course will promote further progress through peaceful negotiations," Bush said.

Mandela, on an 12-day tour of eight U.S. cities, came to the United States after visits to Europe and Canada where he pressed Western leaders to maintain economic pressure on South Africa despite de Klerk's relative moderation.

Mandela sought to soften the disagreement over tactics by thanking "the people of America, and the president, in particular" for supporting black aspirations in South Africa.

"To receive the support of any government is, in our situation, something of enormous importance. But to receive the support of the government of the United States of America, the leader of the West, is something beyond words," he said.

Mandela also said he would do his best to strengthen de Klerk's political position.

Disinvestment, or withdrawal of existing loans or investments, was not required.

EXPORTS

Exports of petroleum products, crude oil, munitions or nuclear technology or materials to South Africa are prohibited as are exports of computers, software and services to the South African military, police or others involved in administering the apartheid system of racial separation.

OTHER PROVISIONS

U.S. government agencies are prohibited from buying goods and services from South Africa, promoting tourism to South Africa, promoting or subsidizing trade with South Africa or cooperating with the South African military except Provisions of 1986 sanctions

Here is a thumbnail of the economic sanctions imposed on South Africa by legislation passed in 1986 and still in effect.

FINANCIAL

A ban on all new public and private loans and investments in South Africa, except for reinvesting profits from South African enterprises, short-term credits and rescheduling of existing debt. The ban exempts loans and credits for education, housing or humanitarian projects and investments in firms owned by black South Africans.

Disinvestment, or withdrawal of existing loans or investments, was not required.

IMPORTS

U.S. imports of South African iron, steel, arms, ammunition, military vehicles and farm products are prohibited. There also is a ban on uranium, coal and textiles.

EXPORTS

Exports of petroleum products, crude oil, munitions or nuclear technology or materials to South Africa are prohibited as are exports of computers, software and services to the South African military, police or others involved in administering the apartheid system of racial separation.

AIRLINES

South Africa Airways is not allowed to land in the United States and no U.S. air carriers are allowed to serve South Africa.

OTHER PROVISIONS

U.S. government agencies are prohibited from buying goods and services from South Africa, promoting tourism to South Africa, promoting or subsidizing trade with South Africa or cooperating with the South African military except for intelligence-gathering activities.

PENALTIES

Corporations are subject to maximum $1 million fines for each violation of the sanctions legislation. Individuals can be fined up to $50,000 and imprisoned up to five years.

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(Additional information)

Itinerary

Here is a tentative schedule for the rest of South African black nationalist leader Nelson Mandela's visit to the United States.

WASHINGTON, D.C.

Monday, June 25 - Meetings with President Bush, Secretary of State Baker and AFL-CIO Executive Council, and news conference.

Tuesday, June 26 - Meeting with Congressional Black Caucus. Speech to joint session of Congress. Meetings with congressional leadership. Evening rally at D.C. Convention Center.

ATLANTA

Wednesday, June 27 - Wreath-laying ceremony at Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.'s grave. Convocation at Morehouse College and presentation of honorary degrees. Evening rally at Grant Field Stadium.

MIAMI-DETROIT

Thursday, June 28 - Speech to convention of American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees at Miami Beach Convention Center. Departure for Detroit. Visit to Ford River Rouge assembly plant. Rally at Tiger Stadium.

DETROIT-LOS ANGELES

Friday, June 29 - Meeting with Midwestern South African community. Departure for Los Angeles. Airport welcome and City Hall reception. Rally and concert at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum.

OAKLAND, Calif.

Saturday, June 30 - Oakland Coliseum rally. Reception.

Sunday, July 1 - Departs from United States.

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